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Consciousness Enigmas Files 
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P. E. A. C. E. 
Publication Ltd presents:




A Recipe
for a Uinverse!

Greatest Search in Humanity;

Is it a Search for Something
We have lost, or perhaps our
Age-old Search for Ourselves?

The next pages contain general descriptions of the progression of Theoretical Physics, Reductionism and Quantum Mechanics during the years from 1900 to 1950. In this review the emphasis is on the failure to include the Observer in the analyses of the Ultimate Reality of the Universe, the Theories of Everything. The review parallels the theorisations presented in the newly published book: THE LITTLE SCROLL, which presents a Theory of Everything that includes Life and Consciousness of the Observer. Parts of this file are taken from the writings of: Johann Grolle, F. David Peat, Richard Restak, Stephen Hawking, John Boslough and others.

The PHYSICS-Files are:

00-Entries Introductions
01-Part One A The Progression of Physics 1900-1950
02-Part One B The Progression of Physics 1950-2000
03-Part Two The Demand for the Anthropic Connection
04-Part Three The Stalemate in the Progression of Physics
05-Part Four The Alternate Mathematical Approach
06-Part Five The Spiritual Connection to Man's Quest
05-Epilogue The Conclusions and Discussions

To Home-Index-Front-Page

"According to the basic laws of physics, we have to include the
characteristics of the instruments. Here, the observer,

must be counted amongst the instruments."

                                                                        Quotation from: Professor Brandon Carter. 

Part One A:

It is some time since men have begun talking of one such all-encompassing theory that may be described as a Recipe for the Universe--one general knowledge and wisdom, which today is believed to be expressible in one mathematical equation, or a set of mathematical equations. One such discussion goes as far back as 1758 in Roger Boscoviche's "Universal Force Law" published under the title THEORIA PHILOSOPHIAE NATURALIS, but his forerunners were the to fathers of the scientific methodology, Sir Francis Beacon and René Descartes.

The Great Search
    Our history has many accounts of expression of intellectual desires for such knowledge as The Ultimate Recipe for the Universe, and Socrates is quoted as praising such knowledge by saying: "It seemed to me a superlative thing--to know the explanation of everything, why it comes to be, why it perishes, why it is?", but it seems that now, 2403 years after his death, we are still seeking this knowledge. It is thus fitting that we begin our scrutiny of this search by looking at the fathers of the scientific methodology Sir Francis Beacon and René Descartes.

Sir Francis Beacon
1561 - 1626
Half of the Great Seal of the United States 
René Descartes
1595 - 1650

     The great thinker, the British philosopher and nature scientist, Sir Francis Bacon, had begun to see all knowledge of Man as if it was structured like a pyramid with a specific top stone.” The top stone all by it self formed a true pyramid, but the pyramid was not a true pyramid without it, but it represented to Beacon the idea of "The Recipe of the Universe". Many claim this idea to be behind the symbolic pyramid topstone--with the all-seeing-eye of God--that is found in The Great Seal of the United States. The symbol came from the Freemasons that signed the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States and is very likely to have originated in the idea of Beacon.  This very same idea is also taken from Beacon and employed in the pyramid-logos used by the PEACE Publication Ltd.

    It may be said that the physical sciences--with theoretical physics at the forefront--have now been evolving in its search for this top stone during the 383 years elapsed since the renowned mystical experience of Descartes. After having had his famous “cogito ergo sum”, spiritual experience on the 10th of November 1619, Rene Descartes became enthusiastic about what he called the admirable scientific method. A sort of collective general method which would unify all of Man's knowledge into one general wisdom, one general unification theory. This took place at the same time as Galileo was in his prime and men had learned to distil alcoholic spirits to make strong burned alcohol drinks--brandies--to energise their brains. This would bring on the "Second Age of Enlightenment" and send the "Dark Ages" in retreat.

    At the onset of the dark period in the history of the spirit of Man in the West--the middle ages which began at the burning of Hypothesis's library in Alexandria about 400 years after Christ --Men began telling each other, which stones were permitted to be scrutinised and which not. This control on the search for knowledge had most of its roots in religion. The period lasted for about 1200 years, during which it not only Men were condemned but also much of the scrutiny of Nature, if it did not have to do with the attempts at making gold. In this Galileo and Bruno became the most famous examples.

    In the beginning of the renaissance around the end of the 15th century, Sir Francis Bacon made the following comment "There are two revelations in reality; The first is given to us in scripture and tradition, and it guided our thinking for centuries. The second revelation is given by the Universe, and that book we are just beginning to read." This prognosis of Bacon turned out to be true and the spirit of the philosophers was reborn in the form of natural-philosophers which later evolved into the different disciplines of the natural sciences. Disciplines which have, for the last 400 years, been progressing away from each other. The motto of the sciences soon became; "Nullius in Verba," or, words alone are not enough. This in turn brought about the doctrines of empiricism and positivism, with the demand that the statement of the investigator be proven through predictions, which later would appear as facts in experiments. This has now been the guiding light of the sciences for the last four hundred years and has justified itself in most fields of investigation into the nature of Nature.
     Sir Isaac Newton is for many the prime witness in the search for "The Recipe of the Universe". Newton may be described as being enraptured by the beauty and simplicity of his laws of gravity, and hoped that he would stumble on an all encompassing theory, even though he kept this secret, and that this would only be known after his death.
    Through this it may be said that Newton had laid the cornerstone to all the endeavor of modern physics: To show and prove the logical necessity of the Universe. It is thus not the declarations of progress that are the struggle of physics, but this dream of Newton, which was, and which is, the goal of the foremost physicists. According to the physicists, the guidelines to this goal are found in the beauty of the differential equations.
      Years after Sir Isaac discovered gravity, he was asked about this experience. His reply; "I was just like a little boy walking on the beach where I saw a stone which seemed different from the rest. I picked up the stone and saw why it was so." (A metaphor also credited to Edison but he may have been quoting Newton).
Sir Isaac Newton
1642 - 1727

     Beauty according to Shakespeare is something "In the eye of the observer." Beauty according to the physicist is the "The logical invariance in Nature".
    The empiricism and positivism method has particularly proven itself in the so-called reductionism, which proposes to seek the nature of everything by tearing it into ever smaller fractions for analyses. However, this motto has on the other hand, brought about a new type of limitation into the investigation of nature and a decision as to what stones may be scrutinised. Now, in the later part of the twentieth century, it has come to pass that some of the special disciplines of the sciences have begun to approach each other, and even unify. This, however, is not coming about through some ideology of the scientists, rather the nature of the evolution of the investigation. This in turn has brought about critic and reassessment of the methods of the sciences--amongst the scientists them selves--this to the traditional methods of investigation and their limitations. The prime targets of this critic have been the phenomena that appear in the high energy accelerators of theoretical-experimental physics, where Man has sought the fundaments for the nature of reality itself.

Thomas A. Edison
1847 - 1931

    Years after Thomas Alva Edison discovered the light bulb, he was asked about this experience. His reply; "I was just like a little boy walking on the beach where I saw a stone which seemed different from the rest. I picked up the stone and saw why it was so." (A metaphor also credited to Newton, but Edison may have been quoting him).
    During the former age of information in the history of man--the age of enlightenment in the West--the Greek age of antiquity's period of philosophy, science and art, which lasted for about 800 years, or from about 400 before, until about 400 after Christ, the famous Agora at the root of the Acropolis, became one of the prime arena in Man's discussion on the nature of the World, Man and Reality.

The philosophers of the time, which ever they were, Stoics, Pythagoreans, Epicureans or Platonists, discussed and scrutinised all subjects and left no stones untouched.

    At the onset of the 20th century, on the 14th of De- cember 1900, on the birthday of The New Physics, Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck presented the findings of his investi- gation into the ultraviolet radiation and solved the enigma of the so called ultra-violet catastro- phe. At this time it was generally assumed that physics could explain every thing, which lead to the closure of the Kaiserliche Patentoffice in Berlin and the British Royal Academy’s consideration for closing it self down. The reasons; nothing more would be discovered since the causes for everything were known. There was only one thing that seemed to throw a shadow on the deterministic sciences, but this was the fact that ultra- violet radiation violated the known laws of nature--all of which were believed to be known. Planck's findings that  
Max K. E. Planck
1858 - 1947
energy came in individual units (quanta) destroyed this believe of Man. Soon enough Planck became aware of the mystery of the Observer's connection in the quantum experiments and in 1931 he had this to say about the subject "...it is impossible to obtain an adequate version of the laws for which we are looking unless the physical system is regarded as a whole." This is indeed the case and the physicist Brandon Carter put this into more explicit terms "According to the basic laws of physics, we have to include the characteristics of the instruments. Here, the observer, must be counted amongst the instruments."
Ernest Rutherford
1871 - 1937
     With the evolution of The New Physics, Man now acquired two classes of Physical Laws, instead of one. Fortyfive years after this beginning, this lead to the detonation of the Plutonium bomb in Alamogordo in New Mexico and thereby the onset of The Age of the Atom. The story of the evolution of the New Physics, quantum physics, is a story of a discipline which tells us that the material part of the Univer se, even Space itself, are composed of matter/energy units whose smallest division is one quanta. This story is seen by many as the most magnificent part of the evolving history of Man's search for knowledge and under- standing.
    It was the early twentieth century research work of Ernest Rutherford (1908 Nobel Prize in chemistry), who with Fredrick Soddy opened up the science of nuclear physics, through his ingenious experiments of firing alpha particles at thin gold foils, establishing the existence of the nucleus and developed the explanation for radioactivity.
     It was the Danish physicist, Niels H. D. Bohr, who soon after moving to England in 1911, had begun working with Rutherford, who made the basic discover- ies in nuclear physics of the atomic structure and created the basic model of the atom we still use today. In 1916 Bohr returned to his native Denmark and in 1920 was made the director of the Institute for Theoret- ical Physics at the University of Copenhagen that is known today as the Niels Bohr Institute.
     In 1922 Bohr was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics and the insatiate became a Mecca for the leading quantum pioneers who during the twenties and the thirties, met at this institute to present, compare and discuss their theories and research findings. It was
Niels H. D. Bohr
1885 - 1963
during this time that Bohr, with the findings of Werner Heisenberg, developed the prime interpretation for the causative in the phenomenas observed in the quantum experiments. This is known as the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and it says that the causative in the quantum phenomenon cannot be established beyond the statistical, which eventually prompted the ideological split between the two great friends, Einstein and Bohr, where Einstein refused to accept that this was the end of the line and made the famous remark "I refuse to believe that God plays dice with the Universe".


  The Ghost in the Machine
The physicists have pointed out that Nature does not deceive us in her replies and that mathematics are a language which does not permit delusions. On the other hand the minds of man are quite often caught being delusional. However, a problem is still associated with our understanding of the replies of nature in the symbolism of mathematics and in spit of the unquestionable and grandiose success of quantum physics, it is still, as Stephen Hawking has said "Basically a theory about something which we do not know and can not predict." Here the reference is to the fact that although we can control the outcome statistically, we do not know what is happening. Quantum mechanical investigation of the physical world have brought with it a ghost, which has proven difficult to exorcise. This is the "Ghost in the Machine", or the riddle of the "Causative in the Quantum Phenomena". This ghost has repeatedly reappeared and has caused many a physicist to sneer in disgust when ever it has been mentioned. The ghost is in the form of the demand for the observer, the scientific investigator, man himself, be included in the outcome of the experiment. Even that he be included in the mathematical equations of quantum mechanics.


Erwin Schrödinger
1887 - 1961
    Here enters the seen the most famous of all quantum physics thought experiments. This is Erwin Schrö- dinger's riddle of the cat in the box. A metaphor whose focal questions are till open for debate in science, but whose solution is nowhere in sight.
    The trail of the ghost is found in remarkable remarks of many of the physicists and it can be said that Plank himself initiated this in 1931, when he said "Science can never solve the enigma of Nature, and this is because that in the final analyzes, we our selves are a part of the puzzle, which we are trying to solve." This is still echoing in numerous such remarks, which focus on the finding that at the quantum level, the existence of the Universe depends on an Observer.
The situation on the causative in quantum phenomena is still not conclusively resolved and this has resulted in numerous theoretical interpretations of quantum reality, where none include the Observer and the consciousness connection. It may be said that it was Schrödinger, who with his 1944 book; WHAT IS LIFE?, started any serious quantum physicists contemplation of the connection of life and consciousness to quantum physics.
    However, right at the onset of the evolution of the discoveries of quantum mechanics, the British physi- cists Sir James Jeans had made the famous remark: "The Universe begins to look more like a great thought than a machine."
    In view of the questions regarding the suggested Observer dependence of the Universe and the failure of physics to connect the quantum theory to life and consciousness, Jeans may have been closer to the core of the riddle of the Universe in his remark, than the words indicate and he realised.
    Later, Adolf Portman commented on this stalemate; "It is now known that the natural sciences have arrived at the borders of the physically knowable.
James Jeanes
1877 - 1946
They have had to acknowledge an infinite mystical domain behind all life." It is this connection and this stalemate that is now the most important question in humanity, but here the suggestion of the QF-theory is that; "It is Man who is playing the dice, not God. That the metaphorical dice are the two hemispheres in the human brain and that we are throwing the dice in such a manner that we only see one of them."

    The riddle of the Observer became obvious right at the onset of the quantum experimentation and the ensuing efforts at explanation through theorisations, but the brilliant physicist and writer, Professor Fred Alan Wolf makes a clear picture of this in the Introduction in his 1981 book TAKING THE QUANTUM LEAP. There he explains to the reader how the quantum pioneers were dealing with something which no one saw with their eyes, something that was in reality only taking place in their own minds, or rather that:

Wolfgang Pauli
1900 - 1958
 "...quantum mechanics indicated that what one observed on an atomic scale 'created' and determ- ined what onw saw. It was like always seeing light through a set of col- oured filters. The colour of the light depends on the filter used. yet there was no way to get rid of the filters. Physicists don't know what the filters are."
    It is precisely the discovery of the explanation for this "filter" and its workings in the human brain, that is at the core of the QF-theory, but at the time of the quant- um pioneers, not enough information about the human brain was available for them to be capable of solving its riddle.
Nevertheless, as early as 1930, the temperamental 1945 “Exclusion Principle” Nobel laureate, Professor Wolfgang  Pauli, had been to Zurich to see Carl Gustaf Jung, where he--amongst other questions he had for the famous "true father" of modern psychology-- involved his search for an understanding of the connection between the observer and the experiment. Jung could not provide the answer, but the psychology he founded, has now solved this enigma.  --  Later Pauli was quoted saying "Behind reality there is an elevated and independent order which both the spirit of the observer, as well as the object of investigation, are subject to."  
    It would be the seeds sowed by the psychology pioneers, Carl Gustaf Jung and William James, that would eventually produce the solution to the riddle of the physicists "filters". This solution would be--as pre- dicted--through a unification theory in physics, that not only unified the four forces of Nature, the quantum theo- ry and general relativity, but also provide the connect- ion between quantum theory, life and consciousness.
    The fundaments for making the connection between the quantum reality description of physics and the psychological reality description of the Observer, would have to be based in a true description of the Observer's psyche. For this end the erroneous descriptions of the  
Carl Gustaf Jung
1875 - 1961
Observer psyche that havebeen prevailing in the twentieth century, have prevented an understanding that allowed such a connection.
    In the creation of the QF-theory connection, extensive help was found in the interpretation of mythology offered by Dr. Jung and that of Professor Joseph Campbell.  
Eugine Wigner
1901 - 1995
      On of the most remarkable remarks made by any physicist, is the one by the physicist and Nobel laur- eate, Eugene Wigner, who claimed that "Man will never understand physical reality unless he takes into account the self reflecting properties of his consciousness." This is reflected in the famous picture REPRODUCTION PROHIBITED, by the Belgian artist René Magritte (1898-1967), where he portrays a young man standing before the mirror, but not getting a mirror image of himself, but an image as seen by someone viewing him from the behind. Wigner's remark is a nothing short of a demand for the ultimate inclusion of the Observer's in any future Unifi- cation Equations of Physics, claiming the ultimate truth about the Universe and all that is in it.
    Francis of Assisi (1182-1226) described the difficulties in comprehending the "self reflecting properties of his consciousness" thus: "Who is it that does the knowing? What we are seeking is that which is seeking."  The Buddha and Bishop George Berkeley (1685-1753) are known for remarks of this nature, but remarkable enough, the QF-theory shows that the key to the final riddles of the Universe's Unification Theory, are in the explanation for the composition and function of Consciousness and the Human Brain and the interactions of the two.  
    Here we must take care not to forget the grand old man of physics, Professor Emeritus, John Archibald Wheeler, who has emphasised the fact that quantum theory forces us to look inward by the comment "Nothing is more important about quantum physics than this: it has destroyed the concept of the world as 'sitting out there.' The universe will never afterwards be the same." Wheeler has made one of the most remarkable remarks regarding the search for "The Recipe for the Universe!" but this is as follows: "Behind it all is surely an idea so simple, so beautiful, so compelling that when--in a decade, a century or a millennium--we grasp it, we will all say to each other, how could it be oth- erwise? How could we have been so stupid for so long?"
John A. Wheeler 1911 - 20??

    These remarks are not new in the history of Man and have been heard at other times, but we are reminded that 2400 years go Protagoras  (480?-411? BC) pointed out that "Man is the measurer of all things." This is indeed the crux of the riddles of physics.

The Antimatter
    When the father of Quantum Electro Dynamics (QED), the Nobel laureate, Paul Dirac, in 1927, presented his equations describing the electron and at the same time discovered the equation for the positron, the antimatter, there appeared numerous theories about another Universe made of antimatter. These speculations increased as antimatter was discovered in cosmic rays in 1931. Ever since this, the astrophysicists have been looking for antimatter planets and antimatter galaxies. Fortunately not a thither has been found of the much dangerous to our world antimatter bodies. Our world would be destroyed in a burst of light, should it come into contact with antimatter. The case of antimatter has primarily had to do with the possibility of turning matter particles into their mirror images.
Paul A. M. Dirac
1902 - 1984

    Later, when the physicists began to investigate the energy exchanges of the electron, it was discovered that the mathematics told them that it (the electron) was endowed with infinite energy while it was engaged in the exchange. This was of course an absurdity for the physicists and to solve this problem a mathematical renormalization process was created to whip this out. When Paul Dirac, heard about this, he sternly pro- tested claiming that this meant that something was being swept under the rug. The causes were not investigated and the phenomena not explained. There are still doubts about this solution.
     In 1931, the same year as Dirac's discovery of the existance of the antimatter version of matter is proven,
a brilliant 25 year old Czechoslovakian born mathematician at the University of Vienna, Kurt Gödel, presents to the world a most peculiar insight into the nature of mathematics. This is the so-called Incompleteness Theorem, which tells the world that mathematics cannot solve all problems, or that there are limits to what mathematics can resolve. The reasons for this finding has not been explained, but that is a part of the failure to explain conclusively why and what this abstraction of our brain--mathematics--really is. Neither have our physicists fully excepted the consequences of this, but that has rendered some of the mathematical conclusions of the late 20th century quite suspicious. Oddly enough, it was the 1984 connection of this theorem to the 1980 published neurological findings of Dr. Roger Sperry's research, that became the  ignition of the ideas that eventually lead to the publication of the QF-theory, 18 year later.

Einstein's Search
    Albert Einstein is here an example of a physicist who re- volutionizes physics, only by following his sense of aesthetics. When Einstein began, he found two shining theories: Maxwell's Theory of Electro-magnetism and the Gravitational Theory of Newton. Nothing indicated that these theories might be erroneous--only a small aesthetic discrepancy:--They did not fit together. Maxwell's equations did not permit anything travelling between places faster than the speed of light, on the other hand, the gravitation of Newton distributed itself over cosmic distances with infinite speed. Einstein's cure for this malady was a new theory of gravity, relativity--which is, to this day, no doubt, the most beautiful of all science theories. 
Albert Einstein
1879 - 1955

    Smitten by this beauty, also Einstein, like Newton, fell for the desire after the last theory of the complete unification of the Laws of Nature. He dedicated the rest of his life to this endeavor; To melt together into one theoretical structure, Gravity and Electromagnetism, in the form of something which has been called the Unified Field Equation.
   Einstein eventually made a suggestion for this equation and called it the Universal Constant. The suggestion turned out to be unfounded and Einstein said to have regretted much this attempt. When the efforts of Einstein proved useless, the hope for the realization of this dream faded with new discoveries. In stead of unifying the two known force (Electromagnetism and Gravity), the progression of physics forced the physicists into the micro universe of the atom and added to it two new forces: The so called Weak-Interactions (Weak Nuclear Force) and the Strong Interactions (Strong Nuclear Force). Not only the forces, but the particles them selves, refused to bow to some simple rules and the physicists began to drown in a flood of new basic particles: If the world of the physicist had began in the twenties with only two matter particles, that is the proton and the electron, now Man--in the fifties--got lost in an ever more incomprehensible collection of particles. The term “Particle Zoo” was coned with ower two hundred “fundamental particles” being discovered by the experimental physicists by their ever-bigger accelerators.

The Birth of Super Symmetry 
Theodor Kaluza
1884 - 1954
    In the later half of the 20th century so-called Super- symmetry Theories were being developed. These are theories, which evolved out of what is known as the Kaluza-Kline discoveries, which first appeared in 1919, and which are very special solutions to the equations of general relativity from 1916. In 1919 the East-Prussian Köeningsberg mathematician, Theodor Kaluza, was experimenting with writing the General Relativity equat- ions in the “5th dimensions”. To his surprise the equations transformed into the equations of Maxwell's electromagnetism, showing for the first time a mathe- matical connection between gravity and electromagne- tism. In combination with mathematical models known as Group Theory, these solutions have now evolved  
into the Supersymmetry Mathematics and have lead to a mathematical discovery of twice the number of particles observed, the Susy particles, which have not been detected. Kaluza told Einstein about this discovery, but nothing came of it until in the later part of the century when this discovery was rediscovered and began to produce the Supersymmetry Theories.

   But is this search of the New Physics bringing us any closer to the ultimate Recipe for the Universe? On the 13th of June 1988 NEWSWEEK presented an interview with Professor Stephen Hawking on the occasion of the publication of his book A BRIEF HISTORY OF TIME. In this interview he expressed his opinion that it will be possible to explain--in one mathematical equation--all that is observable in creation. That the solution would be in mathematics and that he was convinced that "God spoke that language." One of the prime components of this equation are the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, thereby the unification of the classical laws of physics/the mechanical laws, with the statistical/quantum mechanical laws.

   Ever since Rutherford, at the beginning of the century, began his famous experiments by firing alpha particles at thin gold foils, and along with Bohr, created our new ideas of the Atom, this method has been evolving in the building of ever larger accelerators, with ever increasing energy. In this we have been asking nature questions and she has been replying to us. - In turn we have had to use the discipline of mathematics to understand Nature's answers. This has been relatively successful but none the less critic on this method has appeared in the form of metaphors which suggest that this is like someone taking a sledge hammer and  with it, granulating grandpas watch, then getting someone, who has never seen a watch, to investigate the fragments and ask him to tell what they once were and how they worked together. The critic is connected to doubts about our interpretation and understanding of Nature's answers. This became particularly apparent in the last part of the 20th century, where the attempts at creating so-called Superstring Theories with several extra dimensions in addition to the 4 we are used to, resulted in several variations of Theories of Everything, which all turned out to be mathematically correct, although they did not match each other. A further problem with these theories was the fact that we only have one Universe to fit them to, not several. Towards the end of the century this became quite embarrassing for physics and some began to suspect that the old Incompleteness Theorem from 1931 had something to do with this situation. This we now scrutinise in the history of further developments of The Great Search for the Recipe of the Universe in the next part of the file.


"Man will never understand physical reality unless he takes into account the self reflecting properties of his consciousness."

Quotation from: Professor Eugene Wigner

The next part offers the second of two brief overviews of the progression of the Leading Edge of Physics in the 20th century:

02-Part One B
The Progression of Physics 1950-2000


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