This home page is a part of:
The Physics Enigmas And Consciousness Enigmas Files "The PEACE-Files"
P. E. A. C. E.
Publication Ltd presents:
The Contents of the Prophesied Book:
"THE LITTLE SCROLL"
Following are the contents of a seven part book presenting the worlds first models for a complete quantum mechanical and molecular biological theoretical paradigm of unification. This is claimed as:
"The Ultimate Theory of Everything"
Although the Subject of the Book takes References in Religious Prophesies, it is not Religion Oriented.
The Interest in--and the Connection to--the Religious Prophesies, is Purely on the basis of Physics and Neurological Theoretical Considerations regarding Man's Perception of the Phenomena of Time. This is explained throughout the Book in it's following 7 Parts:
00 : Introductions The Presentation of the Book. 01 : The Preface The Introduction of the Book's Foundat- ions. 02 : The Premises The Spiritual Justification for the Book. 03 : Part One 1 Introduction to the Cutting Edge of Theo- retical Physics and its Approach to the Theory of Everything. 04 : Part One 2 Introduction to the Venn-set Theoretical Approach to the Theory of Everything. 05 : Part Two 1 The Venn-set Theoretical Models for the Process during the Creation of Time and the Quantum Wave of the Universe. 06 : Part Two 2 The Venn-set Theoretical Models for the Creation of Mass during the First Second of Time. 07 : Part Three 1 The Initial Connection of the Venn-set QF-Theory of Everything, to the Standard Model of Physics. 08 : Part Three 2 The Initial Connection of the Venn-set QF-Theory of Everything to Life, the Human Brain and Consciousness. 09 : Epilogue The Initial Philosophical Conclusions and Bibliography.
“But there was no one in Heaven or on Earth,
or in the World below who could open the
Scroll and look inside it.”
On the Subject of the Writings in this Book
"There are two revelations in reality; the first is given to us in scripture and tradition, and it guided our thinking for centuries. The second revelation is given by the Universe, and that book we are just beginning to read."
Sir Francis Bacon 1561-1626
The Final Quest of Man's Knowledge"And I saw in the right hand of him that sat on the throne a book written within and on the back side, sealed with seven seals. And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice, Who is worthy to open the book, and to loose the seals thereof? And no man in heaven, nor in earth, neither under the earth, was able to open the book, neither to look thereon. And I wept much, because no man was found worthy to open and to read the book, neither to look thereon. And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not: behold, the Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof. And I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne and of the four beasts, and in the midst of the elders, stood a lamb as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into the earth. And he came and took the book out of the right hand of him that sat upon the throne."
The Bible of King James;
The Book of Revelation 52-7
"Behind it all is surely an idea so simple,
so beautiful, so compelling that when–in a decade,
a century or a millennium–we grasp it,
we will all say to each other;
How could it be otherwise?
How could we have been so stupid for so long?"
John Archibald Wheeler
T. H. Huxley
Part One, Chapter One
Enigmas of Man
The Ultimate Questions in
the Sciences of Physics and Biology
"The question of all questions for humanity, the problem which lies behind all others, and is more interesting than any of them, is that of determination of Man’s place in Nature and his relation to the Cosmos."
"It is impossible to contemplate the spectacle of the starry universe without wondering how it was formed: perhaps we ought to wait to look for an answer to this question until we have patiently assembled the elements,... but if we were so reasonable, if we were curious without impatience, it is probable we would never have created Science and that we would always have been content with a trivial existence. Thus the mind has imperiously laid claim to the answer to this question long before it was ripe, even while perceived in only faint glimmers allowing us to guess an answer rather than wait for it."
Subject of this Unusual Book;
History’s Most Exciting Detective Story.Henri Poincaré’s philosophical sentimental contemplation from 1913, quoted above, may by now, have become a must for humanity and it is something, which has to do with the subject of this book. These hunting questions have been with us for as long as Man has had memories of his existence in extra-genetic bits of knowledge in the written form. What is the nature of reality? What is truth? Even the question: “Why are we asking these questions?” has been popping up at regular intervals throughout our recorded history. The time may have come that Man must find the answers to them or face extinction. Indeed, when it comes to the questions, one fool can ask questions that ten sages can’t answer.
At the beginning of our recorded history we find the question and answer game being undertaken primarily by religious sages and prophets and later by individuals which were called nature, or religious philosophers, with the original meaning of the Greek word denoting something like: “Lover of knowledge and wisdom.”
During the latter part of the Middle Ages, particularly after the beginning of the Renaissance, and during the last four centuries of the Enlightenment, many of the engagements of the philosophers evolved into what we today know as the different disciplines of the sciences. The past two centuries have in particular seen these evolve into numerous highly specialized branches of inquiry. In continuation of this, the 20th century then saw specialization reaching what many regard as extreme, with some of the lesser philosophical and theological speculations of the ancient thinkers turning into hard core scientific investigations. However, during the latter half of this century, the oddity in this trend has been the tendency of some of the more sophisticated disciplines to approach each other and eventually to reunite. This is not taking place due to some ideology of the scientists, but due to the nature of the subjects of investigation. In this the scientists have become aware that they are in fact trying to solve the same questions, by different routes. This reunification process has primarily been lead by the convergence of theoretical physics, cosmology, astrophysics and high-energy particle physics. Today, it may be said that it is centered on what is now known as the Standard Inflationary Model of the Big Bang and the Standard Model of Elementary Particles. These two models have become so interdependent, that one can speak of just one model, ‘The Standard Model’. Although some, for several reasons, have demanded the inclusion of the Observer into The Standard Model, this has proven too complex.
It is this theoretical model of the Universe, ‘The Standard Model’, and the inclusion of Man, which is the subject of these writings. As regards the proceedings of the sciences, the prime excitement regarding The Standard Model is the question whether this will, through its further evolution, provide the ultimate answers about everything. The theorization dealing with the first part of the Universe’s First Second of Creation suggest a moment where all the forces of nature are united into one. As explained in the beginning of this book this is known as complete unification theory, or CUT for short. A fraction of a second later, gravity separates from the other forces and the unification that then prevails for another fraction of a second, is described by physicists in grand unification theories, or GUTs for short. With the achievement of a Complete Unified Theory that includes Life and the Observer’s consciousness, the QF-theory becomes a final Theory of Everything, or TOE for short.Let us have a look at the briefest possible history of time. For this end we have borrowed a graph from Dr. John D. Barrow’s book THE WORLD WITHIN THE WORLD.
The briefest possible History of Time.
Figure 006One may ask: How is it possible that the answers to everything are to be found in an event that lies some 15.000.000.000 years (±3.000.000.000) back in time? How can this event be the focal point of Man’s search for the ultimate understanding of himself and his place in the Universe? This certainly seems a far-fetched idea. If this is really the case, then surely this must be the greatest detective story in history. This suggests that the physicists solving these riddles must be history’s greatest heroes and we indeed, living in exciting times, to witness the unfolding of these enigmas.
How did this Extraordinary Search come about?
What are the Main Enigmas of this Detective Story?The questions of the creation of the Universe are not new, as the Biblical book of Genesis and numerous mythological writings verify. What is new, starting some 73 years ago, is the transfiguration of the age-old enigmas into the current mathematical and experimental science engagements dealing with these questions. How did the spiritual, theological creation speculations of the philosophers develop into modern creation science? Speculations for such science may have taken place as far back as John Michell (1724-1793), but they have their formal beginning in the work of a Belgian priest. It was around 1927 that father Georges Lemaitre first publicly presented his ideas for the creation process of the Universe’s in the terms of modern physics. His ideas were worked out of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity, and in them, the Universe was evolved from an explosion of a “primeval atom”. Later, the famed British physicist, Sir Fred Hoyle, would dub this “The Big Bang”. Another George would be the next in line to grapple with this puzzle. It was the Russian born American physicist, George Gamow, who in 1948 created the first physics models of the First Second of Creation.
The Big Bang, or whatever we choose to call it, comprises the moment of the beginning of our creation. This did not take place, when our parents got together to contribute a half each of a genome, but some 5 x 1017 seconds ago. The First Second of Creation is not only the time of the creation of the fundamental constituents of matter, but also the initiation of the process for the creation of our bodies, brains and consciousness which we are made of. The reading of this book should show the reader that the laws for our creation are indeed written at that “time”. In the next chapter, we shall be looking closer at the story of the quantum mechanical science of creation in the 20th century, but here we shall be looking at the prime questions and enigmas involved.
In the past two decades a flood of books on the subject of the search for the first and foremost fundamental truths of Nature, has become available to the public where this difficult subject is being explained by many a brilliant scientist and science writer. As this is written, some of our physicists are telling us that they are situated on a crossroad on their way to the final answer. This is not only the problem with the higher energies of the accelerators, but problems which are further confounded by the difficult decision on which road to take. This has to do with selection and creation of conceptual approaches in the face of encroaching limitations of the mathematical and technical methods. In whatever form the ultimate findings may be, they are now being described as the Theory of Everything. Consequently, these writings begin with a brief overview of the prime targets in the search of humanity for the Theory of Everything, what this search is all about as it concerns physics and humanity at large. Following are some points, taken from some of the leading physicists, regarding the challenges involved in the final understanding of the Universe.
We begin by quoting Kitty Ferguson in her enlightening 1991 book STEPHEN HAWKING, QUEST FOR A THEORY OF EVERYTHING where she asks: “What would a theory to explain the universe be like?” Kitty calls the prime questions: “Challenges for Theory of Everything candidates!” Here they are:*
01) “It must give us a model that unifies the forces and particles.”
02) “It must answer the question, What are the ‘boundary conditions’ of the universe, the conditions at the very
instant of beginning, before any time whatsoever passed?”
03) “It must allow few options. It ought to be ‘restrictive.’ It should, for instance, predict precisely how many types
of particles there are. If it leaves opinions, it must somehow account for the fact that we have the universe we
have and not a slightly different one.”
04) “It should contain few arbitrary elements. Paradoxically, the Theory of Everything itself may be an arbitrary
05) “It must predict a universe like the universe we observe or else explain convincingly why there’s a
discrepancy... A Theory of Everything must find a way to survive comparison with what we observe.”
06) “It should be simple, although it must allow for enormous complexity.”
07) “It must solve the enigma of combining Einstein’s theory of general relativity with quantum mechanics...
Both general relativity and quantum mechanics are exceptionally good theories,... Nevertheless, put together
they yield infinities and nonsense. The Theory of Everything must somehow resolve that nonsense.”
Ferguson reminds us of Hawking’s question: “Why does the universe go to all the bother of existing?”* which is in fact a part of the question that started the author’s adventure into this field. Ferguson further reminds her readers that: “The Theory of Everything will be a set of laws that make it possible to predict events up to the limit set by the uncertainty principle, and that means in many cases we will have to satisfy ourselves with statistical probabilities, not specifics.”*
As a continuation of this she further reports that: “Stephen Hawking sums up our problem. In answer to the question whether everything is predetermined, either by the Theory of Everything, or by God, he says, Yes he thinks it is. ‘But it might as well not be, because we can never know what is determined.’”* However, that is something the author dares challenge in this book. It may even be stated that the central theme of this book is to show how its creation is predetermined.
In a most excellent book, Dr. F. David Peat discusses extensively the main problems facing the late twentieth century emerging superstring theories (pages 51-53) and sums these up by the suggestion that some sort of a “superstring field concepts” are needed as a final theory. From Dr. F. David Peat’s book SUPERSTRINGS AND THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING are noted the following questions:
01) What are the elementary particles?
02) What is mass?
03) Why are there four forces in nature?
04) What are the symmetries of the elementary particles?
05) Why is our space three-dimensional?
06) Why is the cosmological constant zero?
07) What is the relationship between relativity and quantum theory?With the 1979-1984 achievement of the electro-weak unification; the birth of the theoretical models of the superstrings, the employment of what is known as super-symmetry equations from yesterday’s mathematical symmetry transformations known as group theory, the leading scientists of our times are declaring that the ultimate goal of all of Man’s endeavor at understanding the Universe, is within reach. In a recent publication on the subject by the brilliant physicist Steven Weinberg, we find the following questions crowding the professor’s mind: “What do we mean by one scientific principle ‘explaining’ another? How do we know that there is a common starting point for all such explanations? Will we ever discover that point? How close are we now? What will the final theory be like? What part of our present physics will survive in a final theory? What will it say about life and consciousness? What will happen to the human spirit when we have our final theory?” In an End of the Millennium Special Issue of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, published in December 1999, in an article titled “A Unification of Physics by 2050?” Professor Weinberg makes a most interesting summary of the situation in theoretical physics at the end of the century. This includes a graph showing the situation, which is copied here with the kind permission of SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.
The Overview Situation of Theoretical and Experimental
Physics at the End of the Twentieth Century.
Figure 007In a brilliant ‘92 book, DREAMS OF A FINAL THEORY, Weinberg makes these prognostics: “We may find ourselves led mathematically to a part or all of the final theory, as the only way of avoiding infinities. Indeed, the esoteric new theory of strings may already have provided the unique way of avoiding infinities when we reconcile relativity with quantum mechanics. If so, it will be a large part of any final theory. I do not mean to suggest that the final theory will be deduced from pure mathematics... A final theory will be final in only one sense–it will bring to an end a certain sort of science, the ancient search for those principles that cannot be explained in terms of deeper principles.”* Weinberg’s End of the Millennium Special Issue article also presents us with an excellent graphical diagram showing the situation of the main theoretical aspects of the history of this progression and how they relate to the search for the final truth.
The Overview History of Theoretical Physics
at the End of the Twentieth Century.
Professor Weinberg expresses hopes for a unified physics by the year 2050, but he also suggests that it is impossible to say when the problems of physics will be overcome. It may as well be by 2150. He however, concedes that such unification “will probably require radically new ideas.”* This remark is much in line with a suggestion made by Karl Popper, which appears at the entry to chapter seven of this part. Here are his remarks: “I am inclined to think that scientific discovery is impossible without faith in ideas which are of a purely speculative kind and sometimes quite hazy; a faith which is quite unwarranted from a scientific point of view.”* The author is also inclined to agree with these analyzes on the basis that if it was not so–considering the multitude of brilliant thinkers working on this–physics would in all probability have come up with the answer long ago.
The Possibilities for Man’s Successful
Achievement, and Verification of a Final Theory.At the core of the QF-theory, on the subject of a Complete Unified Theory and a Theory of Everything, lies the idea of a program for the quanta that represents the “Wave-function of the Universe”. This, according to the Standard Model of the Big Bang, is created at a specific fraction of the First Second of Creation that lies some 15.000.000.000 years (±3.000.000.000) in the past. A time during which the conditions of the Universe are known by the physicists to have been extremely simple, relative to the complexities of the Universe as we find it today. A time, during which, truth is dressed in the garb of simplicity.
This specific time is a part of the First Second of Creation that is known as the GUT ERA (Grand Unification Era) and it is the simplicity of that moment that is sought to be captured. It is during this time, that the nature of what is taking place can only be described in the terms of quantum mechanics. It is here that the birth of time is completed. This is the moment of the “first quantum-wave of the Universe”. At this second fraction, the program for all consequent wave functions was written, and this in turn includes the present wave function of the consciousness of the human brain. It may thus represent the very program for the ultimate reality of the Universe, as it is perceivable by the human brain. Eventually, this may include the answers to all questions about life, and the value of this alone may turn out to be immeasurable, particularly if it contributes to the destruction of some of Man’s long standing arguments regarding reality. In particular such seemingly endless differences as the oldest and bloodiest argument of Man; The argument about God. A concept that according to the religions is one that should be uniting Men, not drive them asunder. The reference is primarily in regard to religious, ethnic, economic and political differences, as well as the possibility of it bringing solutions to the numerous functional malfunction disorders of the human brain.
The current state of affairs in Man’s effort at solving the final questions in physics is beginning to indicate problems with the methods used to understand nature. This is brought on by the fact that the magic of mathematics seems to be insufficient in dealing with the final understanding of gravity. Another problem makes the subject further of extraordinary nature, but this is the fact that according to the methods and requirements of physics, the QF-theory may forever remain, just theorizations, since the nature of the subject is such that no direct experimental proof may ever be attainable. The energies required would be far to high for any direct experimentation. This is to many physicists a dreaded nightmare, since it may ultimately leave them with nothing to turn to but philosophy in the form of the Anthropic Principle. This refers to a statement that says everything is as it is because we are as we are. – This book deals with the problems that have been described here briefly, approaching them with an alternative approach, an alternative mathematical method. This is known as set-mathematics and the particular method used has been dubbed: The QREST-FIELD, or QF-approach. However, the QF-theory is not mere speculations since it attempts to follow as closely as possible–and is for the most part in agreement with–the existing theories of the worlds leading physicists.In the accelerator experiments Nature is not know to lie or delude Man, but something in the function of Man’s brain is known to produce delusions. The mathematical method prevents the delusions for the most part. When it comes to interpretations of Nature, Man’s creative/imaginative powers are know to have run amok with his mind. It is for this reason that the author has required a constant check with physics in order to prevent the running wild of his imagination. To give the reader an insight into the scope of the accelerators, the author has–with the kind permission of Dr. F. D. Peat–in part borrowed and updated the following graph from his superb book, SUPERSTRINGS. This graph gives an idea of the energies involved in the studying of the microcosms and the ultimate unification of forces. It also shows the achievements and current status of Man’s accelerators and for the beginning of the 21st century proposed plans by CERN (LHC = Large Hadron Collider) and by Fermilab (VLHC = Very Large Hadron Collider).
Particle Masses, Accelerator Energies and Unification.
Close comparison to the theories and experimental findings of physics have thus served to keep the author’s creative thinking in check. Here a special danger is involved in the symbolic logic of the QREST-FIELD approach, since these deal in extreme simplicity and provide a form of visual images of thinking, something which mathematical processes and equations cannot do. The QF-system is thus a form of pictorial mathematics, which achieves such simplicity that it may be dubbed “mathemagics”. This should, however, not be understood to mean that the method can provide a true picture of the quantum particles. These are as elusive as ever. The system is purely a symbolic language of logic, which does not deal in magnitudes and quantities, while dealing with the nature of Nature, in the arena of quantum logic and quantum phenomena. In this the author believes that he has succeeded in linking successfully the two fields of science which have presented the greatest unification difficulties: The linking of the Standard Model of Physics to Biology and Human Consciousness.As is indicated in the Premises section at the beginning of this book, the author engaged in this subject in order to save his life. In this sense the QF-theory has proven itself valid to the extent that it has satisfied the personal needs of the writer in as much as they have brought the results sought. This through the fact that the ideas evolved out of the theorizations of the “Wave-function of the Universe”and “Wave-function of Conscious- ness,” have served to save and sustain the life of the person writing them. This may be the first such case in history. The suggestion is that the Observer connection of the QF-theory is a possible indication of its validity. There are other possible verifications, such as explanations for numerous unexplained phenomena. The diversity of explanations has a wide range, from such odd feature as the directions of particle spin, to models for holistic arrangement of the human brain and the reasons for the left-handed spin-structure in the amino acids of life. However, before we get into the thick of the action, we should be looking at a few more questions regarding the more difficult parts of this undertaking. These are questions pertaining to the entity asking the question; The QF-theory. – We may also have to ask the question: Why are we–humanity– asking all these questions?
Will a Theory of Everything explain what Life is?
What of Causes for the Problems facing Humanity?The possibility for answers to the age-old riddles about life itself is perhaps the most interesting part of the prospects involving a Theory of Everything. Is there such a thing as an independent Life Force, or is life simply a blind mechanical electro-chemical reaction. Whatever the answer may be, they are sure to be found at the level of the atom, the quantum level. That level is the reality of life since the reality of the DNA is at least partially quantum reality. Currently quantum reality is by many physicists described as the Reality Marketplace.
The central location for the enigma of life is thus situated in the very structure and function of the DNA. Here are some profound/fundamental questions and riddles still unanswered regarding the life-functions:
01) What mechanism governs the homeotic genes’ selection of the appropriate part of the DNA in the RNA coding for proteins and cells morphogenic abilities. This is the cell’s specialization and integration riddle.
02) Why are there two kinds of nucleotides, exons and introns, in the DNA of eukaryotes (Multi-cell organism). In prokaryotes (Single-cell organism) mostly only one type, exons?
03) What governs the exon selection work of the spliceosome molecule on the hnRNA and what is the mechanism that governs the protein structuring? Is it really all only a mindless electro-chemical reaction?
04) Why does life only use left-hand structured amino acids?
05) Why are there less than 2,75% of the nucleotides that form the genes (exons and introns) in the DNA of eukaryotes? Is it possible that the 97,25% are just redundant genes? Is it really possible that these represent only that nature failed to whip out in the evolution?
06) Why does the DNA fail–mostly without an apparent reason–causing cancer and the many other statistical sicknesses, such as the MND (MS and ALS).
These are possibly the prime questions of many regarding the DNA. We could go on with a long list of questions regarding the functions and the failures of the DNA. The real questions and answers regarding life are bound to be a bit bigger than some questions regarding some form of mechanism. They will have to explain what ever it is that makes “dead atoms” start to take on energy in order to align themselves with other atoms forming purposeful complex structures. Why do dead atoms start to order them selves in such a manner that it reflects a purpose to the Observer? Dead atoms and “living atoms” look exactly the same to the physicist.
Another feature of the inquiry into the question of life is the unique posture of the neurons in the array of different cells, forming complex living organisms. Here vertebrate mammals are of course the most conspicuous. The neurons are the cells in which the environmental and interaction reactions of life are controlled through references to stored information. This is taking place primarily in the central nervous systems, which is essentially the part of the living organism where life is sensed. This part of the multiple-cellular organism may pose even more questions than can be raised on the issue of life itself. Some of the biggest and most baffling ones are:
01) Why do most of the neurones DNA seem to throw away the program for the mitoses of their own bodies at the moment of birth? This is the program for their regeneration and they thus fail to replace pathologically or accidentally dead neurones.
02) What program or mechanism regulates the DNA’s production of neuro-transmitters in the neurons of consciousness in the neocortex? How is this related to what the individual is thinking?
03) How are the reality perceptions of the central nervous systems in mammals regulated through the neuro-transmitters?
04) How are the consciousness functions known as learning and memory, regulated by the cerebral community of neurons?
05) What causes the many unexplained neuronal creative learning and memory interactions that have no visible source of initiation?
When we then come to the functions of consciousness, the questions and answer game reaches the edge of the infinite. In this category we have the multitudes of mysteries in the human experience. The multitude of hallucinatory phenomena, and the multitude of mystical phenomena. Neither one is conclusively explained, only described.
The questions about the entity that is asking the questions, is really the ultimate in the game of asking questions. The questions about the existence of Man, his brain and consciousness in relation to the Universe are known as the anthropic questions. The questions regarding Man’s failures in life have a less pompous title but these are really the questions Man should be asking about himself. The motto being that Man’s virtues will not hurt Man, but his vices will. Thus the interest should be with the vices. Philosophy has of course, through the ages, been dealing with the issues on Man’s behavior and his vices. Later this has been undertaken by the would be science of psychology. The jury is still out on the final word on most of these issues regarding Man. However, there are really only two questions from this field that we shall list here:
01) Why does Man so often act against his better judgement? We have the first records of this line of questioning dating back to the Greek philosophers, some 2500 years ago.
02) Does Man posses a natural sense of morality, or is morality an instrument of convenience, as suggested by Thomas Hobbs in the nineteenth century. Did the post war Nuremberg Trials prove him right?
Questions such as these are innumerable. However, there are two categories of riddles regarding the human brain and consciousness that are at the top of such a list. These are the functional disorders of the human brain, which are most apparent in phenomena such as the numerous phobias and psychiatric disorders as well as the difference in intelligence and mental abilities between individuals. The phenomena of the functional disorders appear the most baffling in the phenomena of chemical and psychological addictions. Directly related to the phenomena of the chemical and psychological addictions, is an even more puzzling phenomenon: this is the phenomenon of recovery. Genuine recovery methods, being almost exclusively of a spiritual nature, or in the form of “spiritual programs” with the most efficient one–the 12-steps of AA– having been discovered in the United States in the late-thirties. Up-until that time there was literally no solution available. Addicts would run the full course of the addictions till they met with insanity and premature death, were isolated in asylums, or would destroy themselves against their own will. Only on very rare occasions would they recover through a spiritual experience. The recovery from addiction is described as a miracle by many, since it is not know what happens in the brains and consciousness to bring about the recovery. A genuine miracle is something our sciences have no explanation for. Once we acquire the explanation, it becomes classified as a Law of Nature. One of the more baffling aspects of the process of recovery is the fact that only small portions of those who seek it prove capable of attaining it. The question regarding why this is so may be one of the most important questions in humanity.
The psychological addictions are not just the alcohol and drug addictions, but appear in numerous other compulsions manifesting in the human psyche. Some of the more prominent ones are the nicotine addiction syndrome, over eating, gambling, etc. These deadly compulsions are now treated with the same methods as the ordinary chemical addictions, but modern medicine can do nothing to relive them, other than altering the addictions through drugs.The suggestion that the answer to this problem is to be found in the incomprehensibly small second fraction of the GUT-era in the First Second of Creation is something that is obviously not easily grasped. However, this is what the famous declaration of Professor Hawking initially presented here at the opening of Chapter Three, Part One, page 55, is suggesting. The author claims further that a solution to the riddles of the addictions that is connected to creation itself is bound to be of interest in many quarters.
The Matter/Brain Relationship.
The Physics/Spirituality Interconnectedness.After having read numerous suppositions and suggestions on what the final theory in physics may bring, the author has come to the conclusion that the present predicament and the apparent future prospects of Man and his environment demand that such theories include the Observer. This means that a final theory, which does not include an explanation for the phenomena of life, Man’s brain and consciousness, has to be worthless. A Theory of Everything, describing material reality without the inclusion of the Observer, has not only to be a strange phenomenon, but also in relation to its title, incomplete and absurd. Along with a multitude of others contemplating this issue, the author maintains that any such theory is not entitled to such a title. Plato had suggested that Man would never understand the Universe until the smallest components of matter are known.
Also, without Man’s final understanding of himself, his consciousness and brain, he couldn’t understand the Universe. Another compelling fact in this is the statistical nature of the laws of quantum mechanics, which requires the Observer to be a part of the answers. In order to upgrade the target-requirements of physics for a Theory of Everything, here are some arbitrary statements in an axiomatic form: the maxims of the ten axioms. These axioms, which are used here to qualify the author’s understanding of a final Theory of Everything, state that Man cannot know any one of the following truths without at the same time knowing the other. Here then are these aids to the final analysis of the ultimate knowledge:
01) Man cannot achieve an absolute understanding of the creation of the material universe, without achieving at the same time, an absolute understanding of the creation of the substance and the nature of subatomic particles of matter.
02) Man cannot achieve an absolute understanding of the substance and nature of subatomic particles of matter, without at the same time achieving a complete understanding of the forces of Nature and an absolute definition of reality.
03) Man cannot achieve an absolute definition and complete understanding of the forces of Nature and reality without achieving an absolute understanding of the basic nature and workings of the human brain and an absolute definition of the Observer, at the same time.
04) Man cannot achieve an absolute understanding of the basic nature of the workings of the human brain and a definition of the Observer, without gaining at the same time, an absolute understanding of the nature of all the psychiatric malfunctions and addictions that plague these.
05) Man cannot achieve an absolute understanding of the basic nature and workings of the human brain, without knowing at the same time an absolute definition of thoughts, the concept of free will and the riddles of human morality.
06) Man cannot achieve an absolute definition of thought and free will without achieving at the same time an absolute definition of the errors possible in the thinking processes such as delusions and lies.
07) Man cannot achieve an absolute and final understanding regarding the forgone axioms, without achieving an absolute definition of the entity that is making these definitions; Man himself. Further: The relation of Man to the Universe.
08) Man cannot achieve an absolute and final understanding regarding the forgone axioms, without the explanation for the multitude of spiritual and mystical concepts of which Soul, God and Devil are the most important.
09) Man cannot achieve the answer to these questions without resolving the enigma of life; the riddles of the self-organizing ability of atoms in constructing organic molecules, as well as the cell’s specialization and integration abilities. It should eventually resolve all past and persistent disputes regarding Life and suggestions for a Life Force.
10) Man cannot achieve the understanding of the meaning of any of the forgone without first knowing himself.
Reviewing these statements, one common suggestion regarding an ultimate or final theory, comes to mind. This is the one that suggests that the human brain and consciousness may not be capable of understanding the ultimate logic behind the Universe and Life. That Man may not be evolved in such a manner as to permit such an understanding. That our brains may not be wired in a manner that permits an understanding of the Universe. The findings in this book contest this and center on ideas suggesting that Man is indeed qualified for this. As Einstein remarked, the greatest wonder of Man is his ability to understand the Universe. One of the profoundest discovery of QF-theory may be the suggestion that Man is better qualified to exist than his history indicates, and that the potential capacity of the human brain is much greater than most believe and enjoy.
While the QF-theory verifies these ideas, it ultimately comes across a major functional disorder in the human brain, to a greater or lesser extend, in all human brains. They further show that it is the nature of this malfunction that prevents Man’s insights into the ultimate answer, this since it renders him incapable of recognizing the ultimate laws of nature and makes him refuse, or deny these. Much of what is currently being written regarding recent findings in brain research, and the evolution of Man’s predicament, supports this challenging suggestion.
Of the many new discoveries presented in this book, it is the discovery of this malfunction and its consequences, along with the suggestions for its ultimate solution that may be the most significant and important idea presented in this book. This is the explanation of the QF-theory for the mysterious asymmetrical functions observed in the human brain. It is this possibility that frees the author from all concerns that the QF-theory might be received and treated as totally unfounded speculations. It is this possibility that has kept the author going in his work towards the completion of this book. It is this possibility that has sustained the author during all trials and tribulations necessarily associated with such work as this book.
The answers to most of the enigmas listed will have a natural place in the QF-theorizations, and they will arrive at the age-old spiritual conceptual questions and sources of disputes in humanity, mentioned in this list. This includes the question, which seems to be the oldest and bloodiest, and which occupied Fyodor M. Dostoevsky’s mind so profoundly: “Did Man create God, or did God create Man?” To the author, the spiritual riddle of the existence of the Devil is just as pertinent. Man may possibly have a more urgent need to an answer to the Devil spiritual concept in humanity, rather than the God-spiritual concept, since it is the Devil who, in spiritual terms, is harming Man. Not the spiritual realities, relating to the God-spiritual concepts. The interconnected axioms deal with questions which Man has sought the answers to in different forms and whose spiritual aspects have been the sources of infinite arguments in Man’s search for truth. However, not many have sought to gain an understanding of that which we might call an absolute definition of what lies are. The author’s questions and analyzes in the QF-theorizations are not so much concerned with truth, as they are with lies. In his requirements the theory should succeed in discovering the final analyzes of the phenomena of lies, as this relates to the human brain and life. He is thus indirectly involved in the final discovery of truth. A subject that our philosophers and religious sages have been wrestling with ever since the Greeks began their speculations on the question: “Why does Man act against his better judgement?” In this the author believes that lies are a malfunction in the brain, but once this is removed, the truth will be laid bare, as it’s fundamental program.Well, this is enough of philosophical speculations on Man, but we now turn to the all-important questions as to the “whys” and the “hows” of the apparently unrelated subject of the creation of the Universe and the creation of delusions in the human brain. It was the search for this–along with the need for the clarification of Man’s spiritual concepts–which would lead to the discovery of the QF-theory presented in these writings. Ideas, which would come about through the author’s situation where he–unintentionally and unknowingly–had to find these, or else suffer profusely and then die a premature death.
What are the central Objectives
in the Search for the Theory of Everything?In this chapter we have looked at some of the prime questions the physicists are seeking the answers to. In reading about the questions, the reader should have become conscious of the fact that the answers being sought are to be found at the quantum level. That the questions and the answers, are objectives of the New Physics, or Quantum Mechanics. In other words, they almost exclusively belong to this realm of physics, which at the end of the twentieth century became a 100-year-old discipline of the sciences. A science discipline, which to the general public, is possibly the least known. Even less known is the fact that the functions of our brains are essentially quantum mechanical functions. The general public may not be aware of the fact that the laws of quantum mechanics are not necessarily those of cause and effect. Much the less that many of the phenomena observed in quantum physics are being described as being bizarre and magical. In the search for the Theory of Everything there are not just the requirement for it to explain why the laws of physics are what they are, but a numerous outrageous phenomena need to be explained as well. Some of the enigmas that need to be solved have been confusing the physicists for the better part of the last century and to some they seem to stick out like sour thumbs. Mysteries that are so baffling that the joke is that they have turned physicists into gardeners. The better known of these are the so-called "double slit experiment" with the questions: "What is behind the uncertainty principle, when it comes to the ground state of the electron in the atom?" and "What is behind the week coupling constant?"
When it comes to the grandest of the unanswered questions in cosmology, the QF-theory may fall somewhat short of being a theory of all possible answers. The nature of the answers may be of measurements and observations. However, the QF-quantum mechanical models may possibly solve theoretically such cosmological enigmas as the question of the dark matter in the Universe. The question as to what mass it is that holds the galaxies together, or what their anchorage is. It has been known since 1935 that there is as much as 90% to 99% more matter mass in the galaxies, than is visible through the nuclear fusion burning of the baryon nuclear fuel in the suns. They may not be able to answer the questions as to whether the universe is open or closed. This may be a question for measurements to resolve, but currently astrophysicists are coming up with some profoundly strange measurements regarding the cosmic constant according to which the Universe is accelerating outward, rather than being slowed down by gravity. These are the newest and most startling provisional findings in cosmology by two separate teams, or those of Dr. Bryan Schmidt of the Australian National University and Dr. Saul Perlmutter of the Lawrence Berkley Laboratory. This appears to throw some of the laws of physics to the wind. Dennis Overbye’s brilliant 1991 book LONELY HEARTS OF THE COSMOS, shows us how the cosmic constant as a reference for the expansion of the Universe has been a sticky problem for a better part of the last century.
Yes, the most important questions we may ask of a Theory of Everything will of course have to do with Man and his future. The reply that Confucius used to give to people, who asked him if there was life before this life, or if there was life after this life, may apply to some of the questions the cosmologists are asking. “Try first to figure out how this life you are currently situated in should be. Perhaps the answer to the other questions will then come clear to you.”
No school of questioning or collection of enigmas is richer than when it comes to the questions around Man’s brain and consciousness. Here we may find some questions which appear very insignificant, and whose answers may actually be the subtlest truths of the first order of importance in Man's search for the understanding of himself and the Universe. The profoundest of these is the “riddle of the filters”, which goes like this: After the middle of the century, our neurologists finally attained decisive abilities in dissecting the human brain. This to the extent that in the neurological dissection, they could establish that there was no significant difference between the brain of a low intelligence person, and a high intelligence person. Sometime later our technicians managed to produce brain scanners that could reflect on to a TV-screen a view inside the living human brain, showing the extent of activity. Of course the scanner did not show what the person was thinking, only the degree of activity in the thought processes. Researchers have thus taken a low intelligence person, and a high intelligence person, and attached them to such scanners, in separate quarters. Each of them was then asked to solve the same riddle and the screen monitored while they sought the answer. The difference between the two was that the one we classify as the high intelligence person, showed relatively little activity in the brain, and came up with the right answer in a relatively short time. The person we classify as being of low intelligence, showed relatively great activity in the brain, which did not produce the answer, even though allowed a relatively long time. The difference in the functions of the brains of the two individuals being observed is that we find in the low intelligence person, what we generally call functional disorders of the human brain. Extreme cases of these present us with the psychiatric disorders. What these “functional differences” are, and how they come about, no one knows. What we know is that they are, to a lesser, or greater extend, in the brains of us all.
Fred Allan Wolf, in the brilliant introduction to his brilliant book, The New Physics for Non-scientists, TAKING THE QUANTUM LEAP, tells us how the physicists, who made the first observations of quantum phenomena, became aware of these functional disorders in them selves. They realized that they were looking at the world through filters. Filters, which they did not know what were, nor understand. To this day they still do not know what these filters are, but they may “taint” all what we are observing, whether it be looking at the smallest objects in experimental particle physics, or the largest objects in the cosmological research. The quest to achieve an understanding of these filters may possibly be the most important of all of Man’s endeavors. This book engages in dealing with this question. This may possibly represent what we discussed here prior as the phenomenon of lies and may well be described as the central theme of this book. It is thus the Observer Connection of the QF-theoretical models that the author believes will eventually provide the answers to all fundamental questions regarding Man. This means that the findings of these simplistic CUT/TOE theories, as they relate to the Observer, imply that they will eventually prove to be an imperative knowledge for the survival and future of Man in general. Yet, Man, in his arrogance, may quite easily choose to ignore them, just like the author initially tried to do, and almost died ignoring and denying the lies in his brain-functions.
This then will have to do as a most unusual introduction to the questions involved in these most unusual theorization–and for that matter–most unusual writings in general. It is in fact very doubtful that any introduction can fully prepare the reader for what follows. This might require volumes of writings and a brilliant writer. The philosophical and theological implications involved in a final Complete Unified Theory/Theory of Everything will necessarily take on grandiose proportions. This cannot be helped. It is thus most natural that numerous difficulties have been encountered in the development and presentation of these ideas. These are obviously due to the author’s vocational and educational limitations, both in language and in technical knowledge, as well as his economic circumstances. However, here the author is saved by the very simplistic nature of the QF-theory.
This, once again, calls for the words of Ludwig Boltzmann, which Albert Einstein quoted at the beginning of his publication of the general relativity theory: “Matters of elegance should be left to the tailor and the cobbler.”We next look at a brief overview of the history and progression of the twentieth century sciences of Man, in his attempt at understanding the creation of the material Universe. This will not be the recounting of the history of the progression of the sciences, only a review of the main events. This in order to prepare the reader for the importance of the relationship of our QF-theoretical models to…
The Times We are Living.
Part One, Chapter Two
We are Living
The Time/Life Continuum and the
Condition of Planet Earth and Humanity
"Philosophical inquiry must be supplemented by experiments that are now among the most urgent, challenging and exciting in all of the history of science. Our survival and probably the survival of all life on this planet depends on a more complete understanding of the human mind."
Gerald D. Fischbach
"If this law is found, it could prove almost meaningless, or it could lead to a new golden age of science. Scientists don't know just as they had no idea that Einstein's unification of mass and energy would lead to the age of the atom. Or that quantum mechanics, the mathematical system used by physicists to explain the movements of sub-atomic particles, would be used to make the first laser. Yet, a unification theory remains an almost religious vision to some scientists, a Zen-like view of reality in which all the forces and matter in nature come from a single source."
A Brief History of the Time/Life Evolution
of the Universe, Planet Earth, Man and his Problems.According to the findings of modern cosmology, we live in a solar system that is situated in the suburbs–about 30.000 light-years from the center–of an ordinary galaxy; our Milky Way. The galaxy is one of 100.000.000.000 such galaxies, give or take a few billion. The spiral-shaped galaxies are of various types and are spread out forming walls of galaxies, with immense bubble shaped voids in between, throughout the observable Universe. The galaxies, as our Milky Way galaxy, average each about 100.000.000.000 suns/stars of various sizes and the visible Universe thus contains about 100.000.000.000 times 100.000.000.000 suns/stars give or take a few billion. According to cosmology the Universe started in what is called the Big Bang, which took place some 15.000.000.000 terrestrial years ago give or take some 3 billion years. This Universe of ours–not just the matter in it, but the space/time part of it as well–has been expanding, ever since it banged. The fruits of Man’s endeavor in understanding his environment and himself in it, have further shown us that our solar system and our planet is about 4.600.000.000 terrestrial years old, give/take a few hundred million years. One of the major wonders of these discoveries has been the conclusion that almost all the heavier atoms in the Universe today, have been fused together in what is known as stellar nucleon synthesis. They were then spewed out into the surrounding space when the stars they were created in, were burned out and died, since some of them die in supernovae explosions. We are further told that the atoms in all the planets that revolve around our sun, including our planet, went through the same metamorphoses.
From being simple hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms created shortly after the Big Bang, they became the heavier atoms that are found today. This took place in what is called the first generation of suns (stars) that were formed some five billion terrestrial years after creation. This means that the atoms in our bodies were initially created in the Big Bang, some 15.000.000.000 (±3.000.000.000) years ago. Then, some 5.000.000.000 years after the Big Bang these atoms were formed in a star that lived about 5.000.000.000 years. The death of that star providing the matter for what we know as planets, circling and revolving around our same age sun, for 4.600 to 5.000 million terrestrial years. The consequence of this is that the prime atom of our DNA structure, the code of life, is built mostly around the carbon atom consisting of 6 electrons, 6 protons and 6 neutrons. As the carbon atom was formed in a sun that has died in order for us to be created, we humans are made of star stuff. A closer look at the order of events on the cosmic calendar of the blue planet we are a part of, shows us that life began sometime between 4000 to 3.200 million years ago.Initially life began as a single-cell organism called prokaryotes, since their single strand simplistic DNA was not contained in a nucleus encasing. These were mainly bacteria and amoebas that remained the only form of life for the next 2.500 million years. This form of life did not know sex or death and thus remained unchanged (must have been a terrible bore), continuing itself through cell division called progeny. It was this life that formed the basis of the biosphere on the planet in order to provide a biological environment for the development of higher forms of life. This began about 1.500 million years ago with the invention of cells called eukaryotes, since they developed a twofold Double Helix DNA in a nucleus membrane encasing. They invented sex and death which then 800 years later lead to multi-cellular organism. Then about 560 million years ago, the variety in the forms of life was catapulted in an extraordinary evolutionary acceleration known as the Cambrian explosion, which produced a great variety of life of which we now are a part. This took place in the seas resulting in the first primitive aquatic vertebrates coming into existence and lead to the first land vertebrates appearing 175 million years later, or 365 million years ago, and mammals 200 million years ago. On a galactic time-scale, the time since the appearance of the mammals is same as the time our solar system travels one circle around the center of the Milky Way. The greatest marvel of it all is perhaps the fact that Man has been able to figure this out!
The Appearance and Ascend of Man.During the latter part of “the march of the time/life continuum”, the reign of the giant reptiles, the dinosaurs, started some 225 million years ago and lasted for about 160 million years. This form of Life came to an apparently abrupt end through some natural catastrophe some 66 million years ago. Many of the species of Man the Wise, who have been around for less than 2 million years, see themselves as the most successful form of life, and in turn regard the dinosaurs, as having been unsuccessful. This in spite of the fact that Man has only been around for 1/80 of the time that the dinosaurs ruled the earth. Man, who is apparently approaching a major dilemma regarding his own continued existence, is faced with some sort of an unnatural catastrophe that is taking place within his own head; the head of Man the Wise. In a grander perspective than the everyday survival references of Man, this does indeed appear as a colossal arrogance relative to life, considering the fact that Man does not know why his situation is as it is, and Man’s refusal to admit the truth of the situation. Man’s most primitive ancestors, the pre-primates, came into existence 70 million years ago, and about 5 million years ago, the humanoid species separated from the other apes and became upright 3.7 million years ago. The Homo Erectus, or what has been termed the first true Man, then appeared in what is now China, some 1.8 to 1.7 million years ago. The origin of a primate that is in the same form as we find ourselves, Homo Sapiens or Man the Wise, can be traced with considerable accuracy, 600.000 years before the present times. Another wonder is that most of the cosmological facts we posses were compiled in recent times, or on a cosmic time-scale which represents the equivalent of a split second. On this scale, only 130 years ago, the approximate distance to the Sun was established. Archeology has shown that our ancestors started using language 40.000 years ago. The first forming of cities came with the cultivation of wheat and rice 10.000 years ago and the first calendar some 6.700 years ago, writing 5.500 years ago.
Archeology further informs us and this is the crazy part that we Homo Sapiens or Men the Wise, have practiced being at each-others throats and killing our own kind as far back as we can look. The causes have invariably been the gifts of creation, disputed ideologies regarding how Man should live, or what he should believe and how, regarding a reality which he calls God. By the same token, the science of Zoology tells us that the practice of killing one’s own species is generally not found in the animal kingdom. Indeed, it is the lesser beings on the planet that are suggesting to us that there is possibly something unnatural about the behavior of the master of the planet.
Looking at the history of the last century, where our knowledge of nature has been advanced to the point of completion, we see our grand efficiency in the destruction of our own kind. This once to the tune of some 50 to 60 million of the species, in five years. Prior to that, we practiced with a less efficient exercise of similar kind that netted 20 million lives. Untold millions have been wounded or have had to suffer mental anguish due to this. The summary of this indicates that during the 20th century more than 100 million humans have had to die premature deaths due to political conflicts. This means a million every year, or about 83.500 every month, which means about 2.750 each day, or 115 every hour, 2 every minute. These political events have been taking place for as long as we have recorded history.
To add to the picture of the technological advances of Man, he has now succeeded in bringing his conflicts visually and audibly into his living rooms presently as they take place. Here we meet with one of the many strange paradoxes of Man which became apparent when this occurred in a nation partaking in one such conflict, where the nation sacrificed over 50.000 dead and 500.000 wounded in a relatively small, none local conflict, that spanned some ten years. The paradox being the fact that at the same time, the same amount of casualties was taking place annually in traffic accidents on this nation’s local territory, which is further found to be the case in most countries of the planet.
This brief none-precision account of the time/life evolution, is intended to draw attention to the apparently accelerated pace of what may be called “The homo sapience time/life events”. This is done in order to draw attention the weirdest of all of Man’s behavior. His 20th century’s cold war stockpiling of 30 to 50.000 thermonuclear warheads, a process that began about the middle of the century. Of this arsenal, 10% is said to suffice to eradicate all life on the planet. Added to this are untold quantities of weapons of mass destruction in the chemical and viral or micro-organic form. Now after the millennium thaw in the east-west relations, the disposing of these weapons still remains a major problem, which is yet another unexplained paradox.While busy making nuclear fission and fusion devices, Man has made some rocket excursions to the earth satellite, the moon and at the same time excursions into ever-smaller constituents of the microcosms of the material world, dividing the atom into ever-smaller fragments. This is being done in order to understand how everything was and is made, and possibly, how and why the Universe and Man himself exist. Presently, while all this is going on, about 16.000 die of hunger every day. This is about 666 every hour, about 11 every minute, or 1 every 5 seconds. All this in turn makes some humans wonder why life bothered to evolve from being bacteria or amoeba. Others suggest that this then has been life’s ultimate error; invention of sex and death. All kidding aside, these are but a few points to ponder regarding the acceleration of events, versus Man's time/life evolution.
The Crossroads of the Time/Life Evolution.With the onset of the twentieth century, Man’s gathering of facts concerning the Universe and himself in it were accelerated enormously. However, all the wonders and amazement of our achievements and abilities to think and deduct the truths about creation and the laws of the Universe, and the joy of the knowledge and technical abilities that have come with them, are over-shadowed at the end of the twentieth century. The culmination point in our questions and answers game with nature is being shadowed with the most unpleasant question of our continued existence.
In the universal, galactic, planetary, life evolutionary time-scale the time of Man seems but a fleeting second. Yet it is Man, who possesses the marvelous ability of deciphering the secrets of the Universe and has the ability to understand it all, who has now maneuvered his evolution into an abyss, which is partially produced by Man’s marvelous reasoning abilities. The main doubts we are faced with have to do with the threats to our continued existence. Threats that are not only produced by our self-destruct devices and our pollution of the biosphere we live in, but threats of the collapse of the systems that we live by. The suggestion is that there is more than just one bomb ticking.
Questions about the future have with the aid of computers been quite cleverly formulated and projected, most notably in a scientific inquiry in the United States in 1977. In this speculation, several known factors, in the time/life evolution of Man’s vital interactive functions, were projected and found to collapse somewhere between the years 2005 and 2010. Among these were such factors as collapses of energy sources, raw material sources, economic systems, food production and capital availability. This was all crowned by an accompanying runaway population growth and environmental pollution. Man’s activation of his self-destruct devices–nuclear holocaust–was not considered in this prognosis. Neither was Man coming to his good senses or to his reason, in this Age of Reason. This suggests that we do not believe in such possibilities or perhaps we do not even believe in reason itself. One of the major horrors not generally discussed is the collapse of law and order, but with the collapse of former Soviet Union and the ensuing hidden anarchy in the countries emerging from the remains, has made this more visible. Of particular concern is the unmanageability of the nuclear and chemical arsenals, but in the world in general accelerating growth of terrorist activity has become a major scare. Law and order being something, which to many seems the only thing that sustains civilization.
A part of the human culture–for as long as Man has records–is the other, even less discussed invisible horror, whose subtle collective effects make it the most threatening of all. These are Man's addiction sicknesses. In the first quarter of the twentieth century, the addicted percentage of the populace of western cultures was estimated around 5%. Now at the millennium, this percentage is estimated to be 25%. Alcohol 15%, illegal drugs 5% and legal drugs, or abused medication 5%.
This syndrome carries with it the co-addiction syndrome, but research indicates that for every addict, there are 3 individuals effected psychologically and behaviorally. As the number of effected individuals increase, so does society’s denial of the malady. The scope and the collective effect of this brain pollution cannot be fully appreciated until the brain is fully understood. Whatever the accuracy of these prognosis the unalienable fact remains that the birth/death cycles of the time/life evolution, is headed for self-destruction and its ingredient parts do not know why. Since the year 1977 is only a cosmic-, galactic-, planetary-, life-evolutionary split second ago, and our doubts of the future are still mounting, an increasing number of humans are coming to the conclusion that; “There is something rotten with the state of the planet.” It is indeed an outrage, that Man, in spite of all the wonders of his intelligence, abilities and achievements, is the cause for the doubts about his own future. There have been, and there are those who are not even satisfied with these questions, but have gone so far as to ask questions concerning Man's health and happiness and quality of Man's life. Here, both the philosophies and the sciences of Man are still hard at work trying to figure out the age-old questions: Why do we exist? What are we doing here? What is the purpose of Life? Even the question, What is Man? This has not yet been answered in such a manner as to make the answer indisputable and conclusive.Our psychology/psychiatry sciences have been unable to come up with conclusive answers as to why we are, as we appear to be. Man’s religions have also been and are dealing with these questions. A part of the religious activity of Man is mystical projections called prophecies, and some of them have been prophesied catastrophic events in the future. As far back as we have records of such prophecies, there have been Men who believed them to be coming into reality in their time. Now at the end of the twentieth century it may be said that: Never before, in recorded history, have there been so many prepared to believe so much, of such prophesies of doom. All this is being read in the signs of the times but the core of the problem is reflected in the 1992 words of Harvard rector, Professor Gerald D. Fischbach, presented at the beginning of this chapter. This concludes the overview of the time/life continuum and we can begin our overview of the end phase of the history of human knowledge.
Ascend of the Methods of Modern Science.Throughout recorded history Man has been wrestling with the question of an all-embracing knowledge. A Lagrangian, or a recipe for the Universe, which today is called the Theory of Everything. This was initially the goal of mysticism and occultism in the religions. At the onset of the former age of enlightenment, Greek philosophers, such as the atomist, Democritus, began investigating nature in reductionistic terms. This would later come into conflict with the holistic approach of Aristotle. Thus began the still continuing conflict between the philosophical spiritualists and materialistic empiricists at which the philosopher Protagoras intoned fittingly: “Man is the arbitrator of all things.” To clarify the differences between the science believers and religious believers is one of the many goals of the theorizations in this book.
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), Galileo Galilee (1564-1642), Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) and René Descartes (1596-1650) at the onset of the rebirth period of the Renaissance–the age of reason, the later age of enlightenment–would then inject renewed vigor into the search for an understanding of Nature and the Universe. Descartes had a spiritual experience on the 10th of November 1619 and acquired enthusiastic visions of achieving an all-embracing knowledge through what he called The Admirable Science which may well be histories first idea for a Theory of Everything. His DISCOURSE ON METHOD and PRINCIPLES OF PHILOSOPHY recommends the route for the progression of the sciences through; investigations and verification by mathematics. A method fashioned initially by Aristotle and reinstated by Galilee. This vision remained with him throughout his life.Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626), in NOVUM ORGANUM and THE GREAT INSTAURATION, suggested the method for creation of mathematical thought models with an eventual verification in experiments, or ratification by Nature. He visioned Man's knowledge structured as a pyramid, with an ultimate top-stone that explained everything, or a sort of Theory of Everything. A top-stone that by it self was a pyramid, without which the pyramid was not a pyramid. It was not complete. Here some people believe this to be the idea behind the eye in the top-stone in the pyramid symbol, in the Great Seal of the United States. It is this idea of Bacon that is behind the pyramid logo of this book.
The appearance of Sir Isaac Newton with his two greatest works; MATHE- MATICAL PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY and OPTICS, is one of the most important events in the history of science. Newton not only employed reductionistic methods, but also created his own mathematics. In 1666, Newton investigated the phenomena of light, resolving the spectrum of light through his famous and brilliant experiment with the Prism, and created the calculus, which later spawned Boolean Algebra of Logic and the Venn Diagrams of Set-Mathematics, which this book is based on. He then presented his detailed mathematical explanations for the phe- nomenon of motion and gravity in 1687.
Newton's proof that light is composed of three colors is one of the world's prime optical discoveries, but still presents a fundamental enigma. What process in creation dictates that the fundamental colors be only three?
The Prism and the Proof for Threefold Constitution of Light.
One of the most Important Discoveries in History.
In this discovery may be seen the onset of the investigation into the quantum nature of the Universe. Why are the fundamental colors only three? Why are they red, blue and yellow? Why does the blue and yellow mix so distinctly (into green), but not the red and the yellow (orange)? Why are these colors packed together into colorless white light in the photon? These properties of Nature become–along with the particle spin characteristics–one of two prime backbones of the QF-model creation.The crossroad event in the evolution of the religious-spiritual, scientific-investigative disputes of conflicting findings, was the appearance of the controversial science genius of Sir Charles Darwin (1809-1882). His presentation in 1859, of the; ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES, may be seen as the onset of the investigation into the DNA. His book shook the world–and still shakes the minds of some. It sold out on the first day of its publication.
The Atomic Century’s First Two Decades of
Evolution of the Quantum Mechanical New Physics.At the dawn of the 20th century it was discussed in the Royal Society whether it should not be closed since everything knowable was known. In Germany the patent office in Berlin was terminated in the year 1900, on the grounds that all there was to be discovered, was already discovered. However, the nineteenth centuries physics legacy to the twentieth, was not only discoveries that needed expanded understanding, but further, numerous unresolved enigmas. In the 20th century, Thomas Young’s (1773-1829) nineteenth century discovery of the phenomenon of interference, helped to establish the wave nature of light, but the quantum riddles associated with this phenomena would continue to be the central mystery of the New Physics at the end of the twentieth century. John Dalton (1766-1844) had laid the foundations of the atomic theory upon which modern physical science would be founded. Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev’s (1834-1907) had published in 1869 his first version of what became known as the periodic table, in which he demonstrated the periodic law. In 1871 he then published an improved version of the periodic table, in which he left gaps for elements that were not yet known. Hans Christian Oersted’s, (1777-1851) had in 1819 made discoveries regarding magnetism that would later influence the works of Michael Faraday (1791-1867) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) in the resolving of the electro-magnetic phenomena. Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (1845-1923) discovery of X-rays in 1895, and in 1896 Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908) radiation in Uranium. This was then followed by the beginnings of the initiation of the real search for the fundamental constituent of matter by Sir Joseph John Thomson’s (1856-1940) discovery of the electron in 1898. The opening of the quantum age would then be the next logical step. The age of the New Physics was set in motion by Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858-1947) resolving of the black body radiation ultra violet catastrophe in 1900.
It was on the 14th of December 1900 that the New Physics of quantum mechanics were born when Max Plank presented the findings of his investigation into the ultraviolet part of blackbody radiation and solved the enigma of the so-called ultra-violet catastrophe. This was the 397th anniversary of the birthday of Michael de Notredame (1503-1566), the man who is said to have prophesied about the atomic sciences. At the time it was generally assumed that physics could explain everything, only one thing seemed to throw a shadow, but this was the fact that ultraviolet radiation violated the known laws of Nature. Plank’s finding destroyed this believe of Man. With the evolution of the New Physics, or Quantum Physics, Man acquired his second class of Laws of Physics. This is a science that tells us that the material Universe – even Space itself – is composed of energy units whose smallest division is one quanta. The story of its development is one of the more magnificent parts in the history of Man's search for knowledge. Now, at the end of the twentieth century, this science has brought about the possibility for the discovery of Man’s ultimate and final knowledge.Planck’s breakthrough discovery would then be followed by another colossal insight. This would be Albert Einstein’s (1879-1955) two theories of relativity: The Special Theory (1905) providing an explanation for the photoelectric effect with the E=mc2 relation, and the General Theory (1916) explaining gravity in the terms of the geometry of space. Einstein is here an example of a physicist who revolutionizes physics, only by following his sense of aesthetics. When Einstein began, he found two shining theories: Maxwell’s Theory of Electromagnetism and the Gravitational Theory of Newton. Nothing indicated that these theories might be erroneous–only a small aesthetic discrepancy: They did not fit together. Maxwell’s equations did not permit anything traveling faster than the speed of light, on the other hand, the gravitation of Newton distributed itself over cosmic distances with an infinite speed. Einstein’s cure for this malady was a new theory of gravity: General Relativity. A theory, that is no doubt, the most beautiful of all science theories. Smitten by this beauty, also Einstein, like Newton, fell for the desire to search after the last theory of the complete unification of the laws of Nature. He dedicated the last thirty years of his life to the melting together of gravity and electro-magnetism into one theoretical structure, the Unified Field Equation. This unfinished symphony of Einstein is now being composed for the strings of the string theories.
The first two decades of the century would see discoveries of bits and pieces of the quantum puzzle, but it would first be during the twenties and thirties that the science of the New Physics would really emerge. It was Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson and Cambridge (1871-1937), who in 1911 established the existence of the atomic nucleus. In 1903, he and Fredrick Soddy (1877-1956) proposed, at the time widely ridiculed, the Nobel explanation for radioactive decay. It would then be Niels Henrik David Bohr (1885-1962), who in 1913, postulated that in an atom, the classical theory would not hold, and that electrons moved in fixed orbits. This created a new model of the atom that agreed with Planck’s discovery of the quanta. The piano virtuoso, Arnold Sommerfeld (1868-1951), would then, in 1915, improve on Bohr’s atom model and introduce the mathematical weak coupling constant 1/137.036 about which Heisenberg would later proclaim; “All the quandaries of quantum mechanics will shrivel up when 137 is finally explained.” Came 1919 and Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (1882-1944), would produce the first proof for the General Theory of Relativity with photos of bending sunlight, and Rutherford would present the proton.
The Atomic Century’s Twenties and Thirties
Evolution of the Quantum Mechanical New Physics.It was during the twenties and thirties that the main pioneering discoveries forming the New Physics of quantum mechanics would be made. This was achieved through alternation between theory and experiments. The onset of this evolution would be through Wave Mechanics analyzes of matter suggested in 1924 by the physicist Louis Victor, Prince de Broglie (1892-1987). The wave concept of a particle led the physicist Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961), in 1925, to develop a so-called wave equation to describe the wave properties of a particle and, more specifically, the wave behavior of the electron in the hydrogen atom. The solutions of the Schrödinger equation also indicated that no two electrons could have the same four quantum numbers—that is, could be in the same energy-state and same position. This rule had already been established empirically by Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958) in 1924-5 and is called The Exclusion Principle. Simultaneously with the development of wave mechanics, Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976), in 1926, evolved a different mathematical analysis known as matrix mechanics, which was developed in collaboration with the physicists Max Born (1882-1970) and Ernst Pascual Jordan (1902-1980). Like wave mechanics, matrix mechanics was in agreement with the earlier quantum theory for processes in which the theory agreed with experiment; it was also useful in explaining phenomena that earlier quantum theory could not explain. Prior to this Einstein had coined the name “photon” for the quanta of light. It would then be Heisenberg who in 1927 produced the fundamental dictum to the development of quantum mechanics. This was The Uncertainty Principle, which states that the position and momentum of a sub-atomic particle cannot be specified simultaneously. This dictum would become the first law of quantum mechanics showing that even though statistical calculations can in many cases be quite accurate, all attempts at making precise predictions are futile.
The application of quantum mechanics and special relativity to the theory of the electron allowed Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902-1984), in 1927-1928, to formulate an equation that referred to the existence of the spin of the electron. The spin characteristics of fundamental particles turned out to be truly spooky attributes. It further led to the prediction of the existence of the positron. During the years 1924-5 Satyendra Bose (1894-1974) and Albert Einstein would work out the statistics for full-spin particles now known as Bosons (force carriers). These would be known as Bose-Einstein statistics. It would then be during 1925-6 that Dirac and Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) would work out the rules that are obeyed by half-spin particles now known as Fermions (matter-particles). These would be known as Fermi-Dirac statistics. During the twenties the weirdness of quantum spectra would begin to become more and more apparent to physicists, but this would lead to Bohr and Einstein begin to have their difference on the interpretation of quantum theory and their famous dialogues would ensue. Bohr would quip; “Anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood it” and Einstein his; “God does not play dice with the Universe.” Other results of the advance of quantum theory would show that in the age-old conflict of Zeno and Aristotle–on the paradox of motion–it would turn out that both of them were correct.
The thirties would begin by Kurt Gödel (1906-1978) showing the limitations of mathematics in his presentation of The Incompleteness Theorem, and the physicist Carl David Anderson (1905-1991), would experimentally verify the existence of the antimatter positron in 1932 (cosmic-radiation). In the same year, Sir James Chadwick (1891-1974) discovers the neutron (13 years after the proton) and in 1939, Louis W. Alvarez (1911-1988) measures its magnetic momentum. The last two decades of the twentieth century have seen many a marvelous account of the quantum mechanical discoveries of this era and the bizarre descriptions of fundamental reality they brought. The experiences and reactions of the physicists making the discoveries seem to-day humorous, but these were at the time grave trials for the discoverers, who would be fearful of ridicule in discussing what they were discovering. Heisenberg for example gives an account of how he spent a whole night wandering through a public park in Göttingen, contemplating whether it was possible for Nature to be so absurd as it presented itself at the quantum level. Quantum mechanics would force a radical change in the thinking of the physicists. Instead of unifying the known forces, the ever bigger and more powerful accelerators begun in the early thirties, forced the progression of physics into the micro universe of the atom and added two new forces to those known in the twenties. The Weak Interaction (1932), and the Strong Nuclear Force (1935). It would be after 1930 that the science of particle physics began to become established and Fermi would develop a new kind of statistics for explaining the behavior of electrons. He also developed a theory of beta decay and, from 1934 on would investigate the production of artificial radioactivity by bombarding elements with neutrons. Then in 1935 Hideki Yukawa (1907-1981) postulated the existence of the meson as the carrier of the strong nuclear force and in 1938, Otto Hahn (1879-1968), Lise Meitner (1878-1968) and Otto R. Frisch (1904-1979) discovered fission in uranium, announced in 1939. Uranium had been splitting into smaller fragments consisting of lighter elements. During the decade of the thirties, Marie Curie (1867-1934) and Pierre Curie (1859-1906) would do their pioneering work on radioactivity. Linus Carl Pauling (1901-1994) would in 1939 publish ideas for the nature of the chemical bonds in molecules founded in quantum mechanics.
The Atomic Century’s Forties and Fifties
Evolution of the Quantum Mechanical New Physics.During World War II the advance of the science of the New Physics were greatly accelerated and boosted into the branch that investigated the nuclear forces, but in 1942 the construction of the first nuclear reactor took place in Chicago. This was the beginning of the construction of accelerators but physics did not continue its theoretical stride towards the development of Grand Unified Theories until in the beginning of the sixties. For the next two decades, all efforts would be directed towards the creation of weapons of mass destruction with the first atomic fission-device being detonated in Alamogordo, New Mexico on July 16th, 1945. In 1947 Powel Bardeen would then discover the pi-meson.
The application of quantum mechanics to the subject of electromagnetic radiation led to explanations of many phenomena, such as “braking radiation”. Pair production or the formation of a positron and an electron when electro-magnetic energy interacts with matter. It also led to a grave problem called the divergence difficulty: Certain parameters, such as the so-called bare mass and bare charge of electrons, appear to be infinite in Dirac’s equations. The terms, bare mass and bare charge, refer to hypothetical electrons–virtual electrons–that do not interact with any matter or radiation. (This phenomenon is being extensively dealt with later in these theorizations, using the term virtual energy of space, or vacuum quantum potential, or the yoga disciplines term, prana.) In reality, electrons interact with their own electric field. This difficulty was partly resolved in 1947-49 in a program called renormalization, developed by the physicists Shin'ichiro Tomonaga (1906-1979), Julian S. Schwinger (1918-1994), Richard Phillips Feynman (1918-1988), and Freeman Dyson (1923- ). In this program, the bare mass and charge of the electron are chosen to be infinite in such a way that other infinite physical quantities are canceled out in the “renormalization” equations. Renormalization greatly increased the accuracy with which the structure of atoms could be calculated from first principles. This would be the completion of the creation of the branch of physics known as Quantum Electro Dynamics (QED). However, when the father of QED, the Nobel laureate Paul Dirac, heard about this, he sternly protested claiming that this meant that something was being swept under the rug. The causes were not investigated and the phenomena not fully explained. There are still existing doubts about this solution. These doubts are parts of the ghosts on the trail of the New Physics. – The electron’s “borrowing” of virtual energy from the surrounding space is something which one physicist, Carl von Weizecker (1912- ), dared to refer to as prana, and claim that Man had access to this energy. All such talk by a physicist would be considered highly irregular and Weizecker became known as the philosophical physicist.
In the year 1953, James D. Watson (1928- ) and Francis Crick (1916-2004) would make a discovery founded in quantum mechanical knowledge. They succeeded in deducing the structure of the code of life, the Double Helix of the DNA. The fifties would see, primarily in association with the nuclear arms race, the building of nuclear reactors and accelerators all over the world. The first atomic fusion-device was detonated on Bikini atoll in the Pacific, in July 1946. – Ever since Rutherford, at the beginning of the century, began his famous experiments by firing alpha particles at thin gold foils, this method has been evolving in the building of ever-larger accelerators, with ever increasing energy. This has been a very successful approach to the solving oft the riddles of physics, but none the less, critic on this method has appeared. This is in the form of metaphors which suggest that this is like someone taking a sledge hammer and with it, granulate grandpa’s watch, then get someone, who had never seen a watch, to investigate the fragments and then tell what they had once been and how they worked together. The critics have pointed out that with the accelerator we are asking Nature questions and that doubts about our interpretation and understanding of Nature’s answers may be in order. The physicists have pointed out that Nature does not deceive us in her replies. That mathematics is a language, which does not permit delusions. However, in spite of the unquestionable and grandiose success of quantum physics, some problems are still associated with our understanding of Nature’s replies. These problems have to do with the limits of mathematics. Professor Stephen Hawking reminded us of this when he said that quantum mechanics is “Basically a theory about something, which we do not know and cannot predict.” Here the reference is to the fact that although we can control the outcome statistically, we do not know what is happening inside the “black box” of the interactions. We only see what goes in and what comes out.It would not only be the forces, but also the particles themselves which refused to bow to some simple rules and the physicists began to be drowned in a flood of new “fundamental particles.” If the world of particle physics had began with only two matter particles–the proton and the electron in the twenties–in the fifties, the physicists would get lost in an ever more incomprehensible collection of particles. In 1956 Fredrick Reines and Clyde L. Cowan Jr. proved the existence of the neutrino predicted by Wolfgang Pauli. Now physicists began to speak of “the particle zoo”, as ever increasing number of particles would continue to hunt them. Eventually the father of the atom bomb, Dr. R. Openheimer, would quip that the physicist, who did not discover a new particle any given year, should be awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. Came 1956, Tsung Dao Lee (1926- ) and Chen Ning Yang (1922- ) would point out that parity conservation had not been tested for weak interactions. Chien-Shiung Wu (1912-1997) and her collaborators, who found that space reflection symmetry is not observed in weak interactions, tested this the following year. A consequence was the discovery that the particles emitted in weak interactions always had left-spin and tended to spin parallel into the direction of the particle’s motion. This experimental fact is of paramount importance in the construction of the QF-theory.
The Atomic Century’s Sixties and Seventies
Evolution of the Quantum Mechanical New Physics.It would be during the sixties and seventies that renewed strides towards a theory of Grand Unification would yield two major successes. These would be the discovery of the inner structure of the nucleons and the theoretical unification of two of the four forces of nature. The weak-nuclear force, and the electro-magnetic force. Towards the end of the seventies these magnificent discoveries would renew Newton’s old dream of an all-embracing theory of the Universe.
Sir Francis Crick (1916-2004) and Sydney Brenner (1927- ) would, in 1961, explain the genetic code of DNA consisting of strings of non-overlapping base triplet nucleotides. Brian Josephson (1940- ) would discover the Josephson effect. In 1956, the work of Julian Schwinger (1918-1994) had produced two new theoretical bosons called W-negative and W-positive and Steven Weinberg (1933- ) would in 1961 propose a Z-neutral boson. These were theoretical objects involved in a proposed unification theory of the weak-nuclear force and the electro-magnetic force. Separately the physicist Sheldon L. Glashow (1932- ), and together Abdus Salam (1926-1996), and Steven Weinberg (1935- ) would then propose the theoretical unification during the last years of the sixties. The three would then share the Nobel Prize for this in 1979. This came about without experimental proof, but that came in 1983 (see figure 124, page 379). This would present humanity with proof that the electro-magnetic force–whose field-quanta boson is the photon–and the weak-nuclear force–whose field-quanta bosons are the W-negative, W-positive and the Z-neutral–are a manifestation of a force that becomes united at about 100 GeV energy. This is the approximate equivalent of the state of the Big Bang at Second 10-12. The force would logically be christened the electro-weak force and its discovery would reduce the forces of nature to three.
The physicists Murray Gell-Mann (1929- ), in co-operation and independently, with George Zweig and Yuval Ne’eman, made predictions of the inner construction of the nucleons; the Quarks. Quantum entities that possess they’re own spin characteristics, but were endowed with 1/3 fractions of the 1eV charge of the electron. The existence of the quarks would then be confirmed experimentally in 1968. It would, however, not be possible to observe the quark in independent existence and huge amounts of research funds would be spent until physicists would accept the confinement of quarks. That the quarks only enjoy what is known as “asymptotic freedom,” inside the nucleon. Further theoretical and experimental discoveries were made of two generations of higher energy types of unstable quarks in baryons known as Hyperons. This further prompted a race for quark discoveries by the accelerator teams. With the help of these fraction-fractions of atoms, mathematically renormalized and defined in the so-called Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD), it became possible to classify all the particles into three families (generations). – These essential discoveries, in particular the unification of the weak and electromagnetic energy exchanges into what now is known as the "Elector-Weak-Theory", is seen by many as a future kind of a fundament to any grand, or complete unified theory of all the forces. With quantum chromo dynamics, this is now the backbone in the so-called “Standard Model”, as the physicists call the present theoretical constructions of the physical Universe. No other theories have enjoyed such general acclaim as these two. Every time new discoveries come from the accelerators, they fit perfectly into the puzzle of the complex picture of the Standard Model. However, in spite of these successes, the models could not tell us which fundamental components are the most fundamental, nor would they sort out the puzzles of quantum reality. Neither would they permit any connection to the Observer, nor explain the meaning of it all. Most of all, the final explanation for the force of gravity–how matter manages to curve space–remained out, but this constituted the marriage of quantum mechanics to general relativity.Numerous new avenues of theorizations were being searched out and in 1968 the CERN particle physicist, Gabriel Veneziano, created a very special mathematical model for the heavier matter particles. The model, which was reminiscent of strings, worked well and lead to an improved version in 1970, by the physicist, Yoichiro Nambu. In Nambu’s model, the basic particles were no longer dimensionless point particles, quarks or quantum smeared blobs, but one dimensional strings vibrating and rotating. The theory acquired the name: The String Theory. This model began gaining notice when the physicists Michael Green, John Schwartz and Edward Witten continued to develop it, and with the incorporation into Super-Symmetry, they became Superstring Theory. Finally, Klaus von Klitzing (1943- ) would discover the Quantum Hall Effect in 1977.
Another discovery based on quantum mechanics was made in 1970 as David Baltimore (1938- ) discovers reverse transcript RNA to DNA, and then in 1977, Pierre Chambon and his colleagues would discover that the DNA contained in addition to the protein copying information carrying nucleotides, more than twice as many nucleotides. Molecular biologists would speak of the “junk-genes,” or “genetic-junk,” and the four nucleotide base biochemical letters ACGT molecules would be given the names; Intron Nucleotides for the letters producing the “junk” and Exon Nucleotides for the letters producing the genes. Intron nucleotides are few in prokaryotes, and no purpose has been established in their presence in the DNA of eukaryotes. This still presents a formidable riddle. The insights made during these two decades constitute the backbone information for the QF-theoretical endeavors of which the one by the Hungarian born Dennis Gabor (1900-1979) of Holography is one of the most important ones. In 1971 he received the Nobel Prize for this discovery.
The Atomic Century’s Last Two Decades of
Evolution of the Quantum Mechanical New Physics.The first major event of the eighties was the award winning experimental physics verification-unification of the electromagnetic, and the weak-nuclear forces, know as the Electro-Weak Unification. This was experimentally achieved in CERN in 1983 by Carlo Rubia and his colleagues and merited the Nobel Prize. This was reached through matter, anti-matter proton collision experiments that produced the theoretically postulated massive bosons of W-negative, W-positive and Z-neutral. At about this time professor Steven Weinberg presented a Super-gravity GUT known as the N = 8 theory. This is primarily an eleven dimensional unification of forces through a particle spin interaction theory and does not include the Observer. Further exotic theories would come on to the stage and here the foremost were the highly educated and knowledgeable speculations on the existence of the so called fifth dimensional particles of matter, this through so-called Super-symmetry theorizations whose particles became known as Susys. These ideas were evolved from famous mathematical exercises from the twenties known as the Kaluza-Klein solutions of the general relativity equations, but these had come about through the work of an obscure mathematician, Theodore Kaluza. In 1919, Kaluza had been writing out the equations of general relativity in the 5th dimension when he, much to his surprise, saw them turn into the equations of Maxwell representing the electro-magnetic force. Later, the Swedish mathematician, Oskar Klein, continued work on this. These are ideas, which in the last decade of the 20th century were revived and mathematicians began combining them with group theory mathematics producing super-symmetry eventually producing Grand Unified Theories in the First Second of Creation. Theories that would be combined with the string theories producing the ten dimensional Superstring Theories, which in 1984 produced the first Theory of Everything.
Many different bodies of physicists worked on the superstrings, and in Princeton University, a group of four physicists–humorously named The Princeton String Quartet–under the guidance of David Gross, connected the string theories to other applications of mathematical theoretical physics. These symmetrical equation transformations became quite a curiosity when they in so-called super symmetry equations produced two Universes, not one. Here following we have copied from F. David Peat most interesting 1988 book; SUPERSTRINGS AND THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING, his description of this: “Here the basic symmetry equation, E8 x E8, divides in two, in the Big Bang and creates Two identical Universes, E8 and E8-shadow. We live in our Universe with its planets, stars and galaxies, but according to these ideas, then, parallel to ours, another Universe exists invisible to us, but basically the same! Each Universe has its own electromagnetic force, weak and strong interactions, protons, electrons and neutrinos. These particles can then form atoms out of themselves, later these atoms form molecules. Finally the molecules form rocks, planets, stars and living systems such as theoretical physicists and persons with interest in physics, like the one who is reading this. Still the electromagnetic force and the nuclear force of either one of these Universes will not have any influence in the other. It is as if E8-shadow was indicating an invisible Universe, another World which has a parallel existence to, and which transcends ours. The electrons of the shadow Universe cannot influence the electrons in ours. Protons and shadow protons do not see each other; shadow rocks pass through the walls in our living room. Since the gluons and the electro-weak forces are isolated inside each E8 group, then they cannot create any influence between our world and that of the Shadow-Universe. Still both Universes have their existence within one space/time, and since gravity is a commodity of the whole E8 x E8 symmetry equation, then it remains unchanged through the all breaks in the symmetry and the compactification of dimensions. Gravity connects both Universes. They have their existence within one space/time, which is collectively curved by the mass and energy of both Universes. At this moment we could be sitting in the same chair as someone in the other world. Or, we could be sitting on the bottom of the sea in the shadow-world, or in the middle of shadow-sun.” Here is also F. D. Peat’s most eloquent comment on this; “Physics has finally succeeded in outdoing the science fiction novels.”
By the beginning of the 1990s physicists had produced 5 superstring theories of everything in ten dimensions with different mathematical details, but without any inclusion of the observer. However, the problem with them was that we only have one universe to apply this to. This produced crisis in physics which was solved in 1995 by the super brilliant physics professor, Edward Witten, who produced new concepts in the form of spherical eleven dimensional membranes. This theory was called the M-theory, but it to was without any inclusion or connection to the observer.
The century then ended with the 1980 inauguration Is the End in Sight for Theoretical Physics? lecture prediction of Professor Stephen Hawking that “it is altogether possible that we’ll either become bogged down and have no more progress, or that we’ll soon find the unified theory…” This was then followed by the same bogged down state of the efforts of molecular biology at the completion of the mapping of the 3.200 million nucleotide base biochemical letter human DNA-molecules. This came about through the first years of the new millennium completion of its mapping revealing only 30 to 35.000 genes utilizing only 2,75% of the DNA’s nucleotides, with the rest being unexplained and labeled as introns and none-coding intergentic DNA. Added to this was the unexplained homeostasis of the gene-expressions involving the mysterious functions of the homeotic genes and the spliceosomes molecules.
Well then, we go on to the next chapter which deals with the cutting edge of physics and the physicists' believe that the goal of the final theory is within reach. This is based on the principles of beauty as observed in their superstring and membrane theories, but they are none the less without the Observer. – Well then, it's time we take a closer look at...
The Leading Edge of Science.
Part One, Chapter Three
The Leading Edge
The Search for the Final Theory
of the Universe, Life and Man
"I would like to know exactly what happened between 10-33 second and 10-43 second. It is there that the ultimate answers to all questions about the universe–life itself included–lies."
Stephen W. Hawking
"The dream of a single, all-encompassing, law of Nature spanning the whole of fundamental physics, showing the dissimilar forces of Nature to be but different manifestations of one underlying influence, has risen many great physicists from their slumber of contentment with the status quo. Eddington and Einstein are the most famous pioneers of a grandiose 'theory of everything' uniting electricity, magnetism, and gravity, from whose synthesis would be revealed, behind the inner logic, the peculiar values of the constants of Nature."
John D. Barrow
The Ultimate Goal of Science;
One Global Description of Truth/Reality.Sir Isaac Newton is for many, the prime witness in the search for the “Recipe of the Universe”. Newton is described as being enraptured by the beauty and simplicity of his laws of gravity, and hoping that he would stumble on an all-encompassing theory, even though he kept this a secret, but this dream of his would only be known after his death. In this way Newton laid the cornerstone to all the endeavor of modern physics: To show and prove the logical necessity of the Universe as we experience it. It is thus not the declarations of progress that are the struggle of physics, but the dream of Newton, which is the goal of the foremost physicists. The guidepost to this goal, they say, is to be found in the beauty of the equations. Beauty, according to either William Shakespeare, or David Hume is something: “In the eye of the beholder” (The Observer). Beauty, according to the physicist, is the “logical invariance” in nature as expressed in the mathematical equations.
In the last two decades of the 20th century, a realistic hope emerged amongst the physics community that a final theory of the Universe, including Man and his consciousness, was within reach.
During the progression of the sciences there have been those who have condemned Man’s acquisition of scientific knowledge as being something evil. This has been expressed mainly through the idea of the mad scientists. However, the case is rather that of a mad humanity, since it is not our knowledge that is causing us problems. It is rather a question of what we do with our scientific knowledge. It is not Man’s sciences that are the problem, rather; it is Man him-self. The founding masters of Man’s great religions, the great philosophers of past centuries, and in latter times, the masters of physics and psychobiology, have been, and are, addressing the questions of Man, Truth and Reality. Most of the truths or realities of the material Universe are now formulated in the wondrous laws of physics, but the most important subjects, Life and Man himself, have been left outside the realm of these laws.The questions asked concerning truth and reality suggest that these are not bound to individual human beings. That truth and reality are something that is inherent in creation itself, the Universe, and all that is in it. Since nature does not lie to us–like we do to each other and ourselves–this has been the noble foundation and justification for most of Man’s scientific endeavor. The final questions and answers in our scientific inquiry game thus have to do with our ability to understand what nature is telling us. This understanding that is closely related to the question of absence of lies in our selves and thus our ability to perceive the truth. A clue to the riddles then becomes that the essential nature of all truths is simplicity and beauty, and the human beings must first find this within themselves before they can find it elsewhere. A part of this fact of the quest for the truth is thus the realization that the truth is not bound to individuals, and that the lies are an individual and collective phenomena. The questions on truth may therefore be posed as questions of the absence of lies in Man. Questions of the amount of conscious or subconscious lies. Many of the great masters of the religions and of scientific inquiry may be considered to be beings that have been purer of lies (neuronal functional disorders) to a greater extent than their fellows. Put another way, there is no such thing as; Lao Tze’s truth, Buddha’s truth, Christ’s truth, Mohammed’s truth, Newton’s truth, Gandhi’s truth, Einstein’s truth or my truth. The truth is but one and it is embedded in all of creation, including Man himself. The truth appears in Man only when the lies have been removed from his brain, not before. The final and absolute analyzes of what lies are, and how they are introduced into living organisms thus becomes a subject of monumental interest, no lesser interest than any analyzes regarding what truth is. – We shall now have a look at where our sciences are situated in their work towards a final solution of our problems and the prospects for their producing ultimate answers to the questions regarding our survival so that: “Man may live for ever more!”
The Twentieth Century Cosmic Questions
and the Quest involving the “Cosmic Blueprint”.Before we can consider the final questions of theoretical physics, particle physics and quantum mechanics, we need to review the progression of the science of cosmology and of astrophysics in the 20th century, with a special focus on the evolution towards Newton’s goal: the Theory of Everything. Since Galileo’s building of telescopes to observe the heavens, Man has been building ever larger such tools, creating the sciences of astronomy and cosmology. After Newton’s discovery of the prism, a new science of spectrography and spectroscopy would be created. These were capable of analyzing the chemical clues of the spectra lines of light received from heavenly bodies. It would, however, be with the appearance of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity, in 1916, that the theoretical foundations for a theory of the Universe and everything in it would begin to emerge. Oddly enough, the improvements of Newton’s theory of gravity and motion, in the form of Einstein’s explanation for gravity in the terms of the geometry of space, would lead to the first theoretical formations of a spontaneous explosive creation process. This would be through the work of the mathematician Alexander Friedmann (1888-1925), in 1922, on the suggestion inherent in the mathematics of general relativity. These suggested an expanding Universe and as was mentioned on page 9, would prompt the cosmologist, mathematician and priest, George Lemaitre (1894-1966), to be the first to postulate, in 1927, it’s origin in an exploding fireball. In turn this would prompt the prime opponent of this idea, Sir Fred Hoyle (1915-2000), to contemptuously christen it the Big Bang. The observational finding of the astronomer Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) who, in 1929 published evidence for cosmic expansion would serve as a major verification of these ideas. His showing that light from galaxies was red-shifted suggested that they were receding away from us and served as a major corroboration of these suggestions. Nothing much happen in the field of Big Bang cosmology for the next twenty years until in 1948, when George Gamow (1904-1968) and Ralph Alpher (1921-) made the first detailed calculation for a model of the Big Bang. This model predicted a remnant background radiation of 5 degrees Kelvin leftover from the Big Bang. Another seventeen years would pass until in 1965 the physicists Robert Dicke (1916-) and James Peebles–not knowing of the work of Gamow and Alpher–predicted and attempted to detect, a 10 degrees K leftover Big Bang background radiation. In the same year, radio astronomers Robert Wilson (1936-) and Arno Penzias (1933-) stumbled upon a 2,7 degrees Kelvin leftover cosmic microwave radiation and the Big Bang theory gained permanent respect in the physics community with the millennium seeing more than 90% of physicists accepting it.
During the sixties and the seventies, work on creating Big Bang theories continued, but numerous features needed explanations. One of these was the so-called flatness problem, or the observed homogenetic and isotropic feature of the Universe. The next major break in the creation of Big Bang explanations was Alan Guth’s 1981 introduction for an “inflationary scenario”, in the standard model. These where ideas where the Universe balloons out of primordial cosmic conditions. Questions of the initiation of galactic formations were then solved through the detection–in 1990 by the COBE satellite–of very slight temperature differences in the finally established 2,7o Kelvin cosmic radiation background. This was further evidence for the origin of the Universe in a Big Bang. There are, however, still some puzzling features of the Universe that need an explanation such as the recent Perlmutter suggestions for an accelerating Universe (page 28). The question of the actual age of the Universe is one enigma whose answer keeps wandering about with the appearance and disappearance of evidence that change the so called Hubble constant. This tends to produce astronomical phenomena that seem older than the Universe. Another major enigma is the so-called “dark matter”. Jan Hendrik Oort (1900-1992) and Fritz Zwicky (1898-1974 had presented in the thirties evidence for much greater mass in the galaxies than indicated by the visible burning baryonic matter in the suns. In the 80s it was shown that as much as 90 to 99% of the galactic matter has to be invisible. A recently added feature to the mysteries that need explanation are the bubble shaped voids–100 to 400 million light years across between walls of galaxy formations–in the large scale distribution of matter in the Universe.The evolution of Man’s observations and theorizations in the 20th century, have thus progressed into theoretical models for the very First Second of Creation, in the hope of solving the ultimate enigmas of everything. The focal point having become the so-called GUT-era in the models of the Big Bang. Following is the full quotation of Professor Stephen Hawking's description of this, which is in part quoted at the beginning of this chapter: “The GUT-era lies at the event of the incredible instant when the Universe was between 10-33 second and 10-43 second old... I would like to know exactly what happened between second 10-33 and second 10-43. It is there that the ultimate answer to all questions about the universe–life itself included–lies... The Planck wall is the Universe’s ultimatum: There will be no further hedging of equations, no more jumping over points too complex or obscure to understand. This is where all of Man’s calculations and all of his thinking must be brought together in the clearest statement, in the history of mankind, about the cosmos, and everything in it, including man, before we will know how it began. And still we may never know exactly.”* The author of this book sees this statement of Professor Hawking, as one of the profoundest insights ever to be uttered by a physicist. Not just because it is in agreement with the findings of the QF-theory, but because it may possibly be the best simplistic description of the central goal of physics.
The Final scaling of the Pyramid of Knowledge.
The Meaning of the Ultimate Theory of Everything.As the last years of the 20th century fade away and the first years of the 21st century begin to roll in, the endeavor of theoretical physics have aligned themselves into three primary avenues of theorization. These are the GUT, Supersymmetry and Superstring theories. Any one of these is in turn expected to lead to the final Complete Unifying Theory, or the final Unified Field Equation, or the final; Supersymmetry Superstring Field Theory, or the final Theory of Everything. The repeated use of the word "final" comes about through the numerous suggestions for such theories. This would mean a theory that produces something like ‘The First Law of Physics’, or a base behind all other laws of physics or a law from which all other laws spring. A theory, whose existence is not definitely known and whose existence is debated amongst the physicists themselves. A law or a set of laws that–if existing–may possibly answer all conceivable fundamental questions that may be presented. Hopefully, this possibly most important law, or law of all laws, will be discovered in time to answer the vital questions regarding the future of Man, before it will be too late.<>As strange and unrelated as it may seem, that Man may somehow, through the reductionism methods of the physicists, discover an ultimate statement, or law, regarding reality of everything–life included–has indeed become more than a probability. When one reads the history of the progression of physics in the twentieth century, one cannot but marvel at the patient and enlightened detective work that has been carried out in revealing the secrets of space/time and matter/energy. This in particular, considering the fact that the subject of examination is invisible and almost inaccessible to scrutiny (plus uncertainty), but yet the physicists have come up with most of the answers regarding the Universe. That they have come up with four entities of permanent matter and four entities for the interaction of forces, is not a small achievement. We now know, for the most part, the nature of the basic constituents of matter/energy. The only thing missing is an ultimate knowledge of how these particles came into being, and with this, the ultimate reality of these entities, thus the Universe as a whole. In his book DREAMS OF A FINAL THEORY, the 1979 Nobel laureate in theoretical physics, Professor Steven Weinberg, promises us in the final theory “The greatest advance in human knowledge since the birth of science.” He sees before him, within reach, the end of the search of the centuries, the search for the ultimate explanation for the Universe; the answer to Einstein’s question: “Did God have a choice when he created the Universe?”
Considering this, and in spite of all the criticism of the reductionism methods, the science progression of the twentieth century deserves three cheers. It has proven itself as the greatest detective agency and one of the prime testimonies to the human spirit. As far as the progression of Man’s knowledge of the material Universe is concerned, we do indeed live in the most exiting of times, possibly crucial times. In this The Little Scroll serve as a part of the readers preparations for the moment the physicists announce to us: The ultimate all embracing truth of the Universe, while at the same time it presents it own all embracing truth that includes the Observer. At this stage it is fitting to review some analysis and reminders the German physics analyst, Johann Grolle, offers. These are three considerations pertaining to the search for the final answer. They have to do with doubts that crowd the minds of many that contemplate these issues. The doubts manifest in the following:
*) Perhaps there is not any recipe for the Universe. The question; Why? could end in a never-ending question. The ultimate truth of the Universe could be founded in pure coincidences.
*) Man's ability to understand could be too limited in order to understand the recipe for the Universe. Certainly, a dog will never be capable of understanding quantum mechanics.
*) It is possible that the physicists will in the end have to satisfy themselves with the Anthropic Principle, which is a sort of easy escape for God through the back door. This rule says that the Universe is as it is because it is the only Universe where Men exist and can ask the question; Why is the Universe as it is?The world community of leading physicists is just about to discover this ultimate knowledge of all conceivable knowledge, or bust. The success of this had been seen as partially dependent on the construction of an 11.000 million US$ SSC accelerator in Ellis County, Texas. Our physicists had become quite optimistic, but as time passed and 2.000 million US$ had been spent, the SSC was scraped. Currently (2001) the two most powerful accelerator on earth have been and are being beefed-up with the method of using contra-rotating tracks, which thrown protons and anti-protons in the face of each other. The European accelerator at Geneva’s CERN has already been modified to become the LHC, or Large Hadron Collider, and the U. S. Fermilab’s Tevatron (TVT) is being modified into the VLHC, or Very Large Hadron Collider. Currently Tevatron creates a thousand million times less energy than what the physicists say is needed for the unification of all the forces of nature (See figure 009, page 17). This means that both these modifications will only be clawing in the direction of further unification, and further that they represent the last thinkable experiments of this sort.
The Progression and the Situation of:
The Leading Edge of the Objective Sciences.Here it is fitting that the reader should be presented with a graph depicting the progression of theoretical physics, and high-energy particle physics. This progression has now brought about a certain unification of these disciplines to those of cosmology and astrophysics centered in models of the Big Bang. In order to provide an overview of the progression towards the goal of a final CUT/TOE, a copy of a scheme from J. D. Barrow’s book THE WORLD WITHIN THE WORLD is most useful.
The scheme in Figure 011 provides us with a review of Man’s acquired explanations of natural phenomena, as well as the trends towards a final Theory of Everything. So far physicists have discovered four different kinds of sub-units of matter and the search is on for an explanation of their possible common ancestry. At the same time the forces producing the interactions of matter have been reduced to three basic forces. The prime occupation of physics is thus to show how these sub-units of matter and forces had their origin in the same super-force. The top three boxes represent the final assault on the summit of the mountain of knowledge, as it is projected by theoretical physics.
The Pyramid of Progression of Physics Knowledge.
The scheme is deliberately constructed into a pyramid-form, in order to conform to the suggestion of Sir Francis Bacon. Bacon saw the knowledge of Man as being structured as a pyramid, with an ultimate top-stone. The top-stone represents the final goal of all the sciences, which in the author’s estimate is the ultimate knowledge of Man. This top-stone is approached by physics via two different routes. One through Big Bang theories and the other through theoretical-experimental work in elementary particle physics.
Route a). - Approach via Big Bang Theorizations:
One approach is that of seeking the summit via theorizations around the GUT-era, in the Big Bang. This is primarily limited by the “partial collapse” of the mathematical method around fraction 10-30 of The First Second of Creation. At this point the density of the Universe is such that most values start approaching infinities and the mathematics loose their ability to tell us anything. They become nonsensical.
Route b). - Approach via High-Energy Particle Physics:
The other approach is via theorization in high-energy particle physics, dealing primarily with unification of the electro-weak interactions and the strong interactions. This is primarily limited by Man’s inability to produce higher energy accelerators. The currently available maximum accelerator outputs are limited at energy around 1 to 10 TeV. The energy required is around 1012 to 1015 TeV, which represents a huge gap (See page 17).In order to give some idea of how the author’s approach relates to that of physics, here are some graphical overviews of the approach of physics in the search for the ultimate top-stone of knowledge, and the direction in which the search is aimed. At the same time a graphical overview comparison of the QF-method to that of physics is presented. Figures 012 and 014 represent physics. Figures 013, 015 and 016 represent the QF-method. Figures 012 and 013 pertain to Route a). Figures 014, 015 and 016 to Route b).
Comparison of the
QF-Approach to that of physics: Route a).The graphics in figure 012 present us with the physics approach to the top-stone of the pyramid. This is being approached via mathematical analyzes of The First Second of the Universe just prior to the initial conditions. The grand unification of the three known forces of nature: electro-magnetism, weak and the strong interactions is expected during The Birth of Time, in the First Second. This could also be stated naming two known forces of nature; the electro-weak-united force and the strong force, but no one knows for sure whether there ever was such unification. Currently the mathematical concepts of the superstrings are considered the most promising form of such theorization. The QF-models represent a form of such theorizations.
Comparison of the QF-Approach to that of Physics:
Route a)–The Physics Approach.
The question mark marked boxes in figure 012 represent the final assault on the summit of the mountain of knowledge, as projected by theoretical physics. These theories require a reconciliation of Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity, but mathematical attempts so far have yielded incalculable absurdities, mostly in the form of infinities.The QF-method employed in the theory presented in this book is a form of superstring field-concept. This method begins by semi-hypothesis regarding the initial conditions of the Universe. From these hypothesis, or assumptions, a reconstruction of the events of creation is made, through The Birth of Time, by working forwards from the hypothetical model of the Big Bang's initial conditions. The goal; A link-up with what our physicists are telling us by working with known data, backwards into their Big Bang. The next figure, figure 013, is a simplistic graphic representation intended to give an overview of the QF-approach to the top-stone of knowledge.
Comparison of the QF-Approach to that of Physics:
Route a)–The QF-Approach.
Figure 013 represents the equivalent route of the QF-theorizations, and the simplest description possible of the theoretical model of the Big Bang that produces a Complete Unification of forces and which presents–as regards the author of this theory–a satisfactory result for the presentation of a CUT/TOE paradigm. In this they produce the missing answers to the questions regarding the force of gravity in the form of the QF-diagram models, presenting suggestions for the reconciliation of Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity, and additionally bring in the consciousness of Man. It should be noted that the QF-theory does not produce a grand unification.This represents a large-scale simplistic summary comparison of the QF-approach to the physics approach, looking at the known forces of Nature, as opposite to looking at Nature’s constituencies of matter, which is next.
Comparison of the
QF-Approach to that of physics: Route b).The other way to the top-stone of knowledge is via theorization and experimentation in high-energy particle physics. Figure 014 shows further the past history of the evolution of this type of research, most of which has taken place in the 20th century. This method is oriented around the theoretical prediction of specific particles appearing in the accelerator experiments.
Comparison of the QF-Approach to that of Physics:
Route b)–The High-Energy Particle Physics.
The search for the answers to the questions in the question mark marked boxes in figure 014 has brought together cosmology-astrophysics and theoretical physics/high-energy experimental physics. The box with the two question marks represents the unification of the electro-weak force and the strong nuclear force and the three question marks represent the unification of these forces with gravity. This would reveal a Complete Unification Theory (CUT), which in turn may explain the Observers of the Universe through the wave function of the Universe, and thus qualify as a Theory of Everything (TOE). The relationship of the QF-theory to these proceedings is shown in figure 015.The processes that are outlined in simplicity in the first part of the graphics of figure 015 represent the true miracle of the QF-theory. This process shows in detail the creation of the leptons through the quantification of the singularity from which the Universe comes and how the surrounding space is also quantified to create the “containers” that “suck in the mass of the antimatter leptons” to form the nucleons. The simplistic QF-description of the nucleon creation represents a major wonder.
Comparison of the QF-Approach to that of Physics:
Route b)–The Big Bang QF-Theorizations.
This graphic scheme for the QF-models suggestions for the composition of the particle side of the top-stone of the pyramid of knowledge suggests further that one more figure is necessary for this expression.The graphic in figure 016 is in a form that is oriented around all the sides that represent something like a Complete Unified Theory, which would then reveal an ultimate Theory of Everything. If this statement is true, then the QF-theory will explain what life itself is, as well as the why’s and the how’s in its coming into being. The graph in figure 016 on the next page summarizes figures 013 and 015 and expresses the QF-approach for both Route a) and b).
The Overview Comparison QF-Approach for
Route a) and Route b).
Figure 016The three presentations in figures 011, 012 and 014, show how we find the situation in physics in the first part of the last ten years of the 20th century. The QF-theory does achieve an explanation for the interrelation of the four forces since it includes quantification of space-gravity. Its prime suggestion is a detailed model for the photon as the first sub-unit of matter-energy, and one quanta of energy. Since the QF-theory includes the program for reality and the basic construction of the human brain, it may be regarded as a Theory of Everything. Its “proof” is to be found in the spin characteristics of the sub-atomic particles and in the simplistic relation of their QF-field concepts to the human brain. These are the grandest claims anyone can make, but their main physics support is to be found in an attribute of the particle spin. Whether they represent the truth is something only the time/life continuum will tell. The other possible future proof will be in the discovery of the QF-quantum reality distribution in the human genome.
The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.
The Questions of the Causative Reality and God.The wave/particle duality in quantum mechanics, the complimentary uncertainty in quantum investigation, the generally bizarre reality of quantum spectra and the inability of Man to predict the outcome of quantum processes beyond the statistical, have produced several interpretations of the quantum world (reality). Four schools of thought are prominent in the interpretation of what it is that “collapses the wave packet” (makes things happen) in the quantum phenomena. Here, from his 1984 book THE HOLOGRAPHIC PARADIGM is Ken Wilber’s overview analyzes:
1. The Copenhagen Interpretation.
This is the interpretation that most physicists accept and follow. It teaches that the cause for the collapse of the wave packet is purely random. The interpretation says that the probability is all we can know and all there is to know. Prime proponent of this explanation was the prominent Niels Bohr. The famous opponent was Albert Einstein who rejected this view with his famous quip: “God does not play dice with the Universe.”
2. The Hidden Variable Theories.
These suggest that quantum processes are not purely random, and that there are specific factors behind the scenes–even none-locally–that collapse the wave packet. Suggestions are that eventually the causative factors will be found and controlled to produce a prediction of the collapse of the wave packet. Famous proponents: David Bohm, Albert Einstein and Jack Sarfatti.
3. The Many Worlds Hypothesis.
In this explanation there are several interconnected Universes where the complementary events take place. All mutually exclusive possibilities contained in the wave function do occur, but in different Universes. This theory is proposed by the prominent: Hugh Everett III, John A. Wheeler and A. Graham. This interpretation prompted Fred Alan Wolf to write the PARALLEL UNIVERSES and Francois Mauriac to quip: “What this is saying is far more incredible than what we poor Christians are asked to believe.”
4. The Matter/Mind Connection.
This interpretation comes in many varieties, but its prime contents are that the measurement collapses the wave packet (creates the observed event), but consciousness triggers the measurement. Thus it is the mind that collapses the wave packet. One of the proponents of this interpretation connects the consciousness to the quantum vacuum potential. Famous advocates: Eugene Wigner, Jack Sarfatti, Walker and Muses.Physicists offer several interpretation of how we should look at the nature of elementary particles producing the particle-zoo. Here the prime problem is the specification and definition of reality in quantum spectra, which the late Heinz R. Pagels called the “Reality Market”. Only some of these particle theories are named here without going into detail of their interpretations, but these are: Worlds Within Worlds, Rock Bottom, and Geoffrey Chew’s suggestions for the Bootstrap Nature of Elementary Particles.
The late physics Professor, David Bohm (1917-1992), produced a remarkable interpretation of the reality of the particle world in a theory titled The Implicate Order, but it is from this theory that the QF-theory takes it classifications of reality of the quantum particles. In the QF-theory, the reality of the four dimensions of the elementary particles and space, is the secondary reality (explicate), the fundamental primary reality (implicate) of the Universe being in the creation reality of the two extra dimension in the fabric of space itself. In the QF-theory the two space fabric realities are termed as the 5th and the 6th dimension (mathematics of string theories offer the superstrings their 6-7 extra-dimensional freedom of movement through multiples of these dimensions). In chapter five of this part are presented the foundations for the QF-theories terminology of implicate and explicate realities provided by Dr. Bohm. In the QF-genome models these terms are applied to the DNA’s nucleotides division into introns and exons, where the QF-theory relates implicate reality of space to the creation realty; the reality which Man calls God.
The question of the concept of God in Big Bang theories is something most physicists generally shy away from. None the less the term is commonly used and on the occasion of the publication of his 1988 book, A BRIEF HISTORY OF TIME, Hawking expressed his opinion that it will be possible to explain–in one mathematical equation–all that is observable in creation. His suggestion that the solution would be in mathematics and that he was convinced that: “God spoke that language” is worth repeating here. The prime components of this proposed equation are the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, thus the unification of the laws of classical mechanics with the statistical laws of physics.When Stephen Weinberg attended the discussions before the senate appropriations committee, on the financing of the proposed SSC accelerator (fig. 009), the president of the committee brought up the question whether the scientists “...expected to find God.” At this, the prime opponent of the bill, exclaimed; “If that is the case, then I shall immediately recommend the bill!” In his book GOD & THE NEW PHYSICS, Paul Davies expresses his conviction that physics is uniquely placed to offer a surer path to God than religion. From his personal experience the author agrees with this, but fails to see how it can be achieved prior to discovery of the final theory. Until the final Theory of Everything appears, the God concept will remain an individual definition, as each individual is capable of understanding.
Alternative Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
and the Suggested Connections to Eastern Mysticism.In the seventies, some physicists presented a model of the Universe: The Holographic Paradigm, and for a time there was much to-do about this model. This lead to the first, in modern times, connections between the so-called real sciences, that is physics and biology, and real beliefs. Beliefs where Men say not just that they belief, but that they know. Here the reference is to wisdom, which Men gain in an altered state of consciousness, or transcended state.
In 1978 Lawrence Beynam made the following claims: “We are currently undergoing a paradigm shift in science–perhaps the greatest shift of its kind to date. It is for the first time that we have stumbled upon a comprehensive model for mystical experiences, which has the additional advantages of deriving from the forefront of contemporary physics.” Six years later, the grand commentator of mystical phenomena, Ken Wilber, wrote a brilliant critical appraisal of these ideas and called it Physics, Mysticism, and the new Holographic Paradigm. In this, it may be said that he wiped out the hopes of those who saw before them the marriage of mysticism and physics. In this article Wilber paraphrased Master Eckhart: “If your God is the God of today’s physics, then where that physics goes (tomorrow), that God goes with it.” Nonetheless, this model caused some physicists to see connections between their work and the philosophy behind Eastern Mysticism, and the writings of Fritjof Capra: THE TAO OF PHYSICS and Gary Zukav: THE DANCING WU LI MASTERS, became popular. Capra was later quoted expressing the ideas of David Bohm: “Quantum theory forces us to see the universe not as a collection of physical objects, but rather as a unified whole.... All [physical] particles are dynamically composed of one another in a self-consistent way, and in that sense can be said to ‘contain’ one another. In [this theory], the emphasis is on the interaction, or ‘interpenetration’ of all particles.”* Much of the information that follow are taken from John Boslough’s book STEPHEN HAWKING’S UNIVERSE. Written at the beginning of the eighties, it describes how many physicists began to see the paradoxes, the coincidences and the statistical possibilities, as well as the requirement for the observer in quantum mechanics, as having been projected in the writings of Hinduism, Buddhism and Taoism. Quantum Mechanics, they suggested, is just a rediscovery of Shiva or Mahadeva, the triple horned Hindu god of destruction and cosmic solution. Shiva, which is mentioned as early as the third or fourth century before Christ, adopts several forms. One of them is Nataraja, the four-armed lord of the cosmic dance, shown as dancing on a vanquished and flattened devil. The dance of this god is symbolic for the repeated universal creation and destruction. Matter has no form; it is only dynamic, rhythmic gyration of energy coming and going. In continuation of this came the criticism of David Bohm, after he had consulted Krishnamurti and he had become conscious of the limits in the nature of the scientific method. He had become aware that, in his search, the scientist does not turn his attention inward. Bohm’s remark: “The human minds ability to grasp higher realities is denied or ignored by conventional science. Standard science is at a dead end because it analyzes experience into discrete pieces. The human mind–and particularity the mind of the physicist–has an overwhelming need to impose categories on experience. As a result the seamless web of physical reality is divided into separate events that seem to occur only side by side in different parts of time and space.”* By understanding Eastern Mysticism, Bohm suggests that physicists can free their minds, at least briefly, from the self-created prison in order to attain an instant of scientific creation. At Cambridge, Professor Brian Josephson has for some time actively practiced Eastern meditational techniques. He won the Nobel Prize in 1973, but has now as a meditational target the relationship between human intelligence and the world it observes. He believes that with increased understanding of Eastern Mysticism, he will gain insights into objective reality. In 1995 Josephson announced that he was leaving physics in order to pursue a carrier investigating psychic phenomena.Many physicists showed reactions of disgust at this general evolution and Professor Hawking exclaimed in a discussion about the relationship between the Big Bang and God and the Anthropic Principle: “I think it is absolute rubbish. It's pure rubbish.” When he was asked what he thought of the interest of some physicists for finding the connection between the energy/matter exchanges of quantum mechanics and creation-dissolution cycles of Eastern Mysticism, his reply was: “The Universe of Eastern Mysticism is an illusion. A physicist who attempts to link it with his own work has abandoned physics.” Hawking reminded us that the quantum pioneer, Niels Bohr, had at one time asserted that it was useless to try to use quantum mechanics as a springboard for religious, mystical, or parapsychological speculations. However, during the last decades of the 20th century, and the onset of the 21st, the world is seeing a surge in the interest of science to solve the riddle of the human brain, consciousness and its relation to the Universe. This is accentuated by numerous writings suggesting that only through quantum mechanics can the final understanding of the numerous questions involved be brought forth. Two of the writings are, THE ASTONISHING HYPOTHESIS, by Sir Francis Crick, who has been a leading academic in making consciousness a legitimate subject-object for science. He has since 1994 been instrumental in annually hosting a science symposiums on the subject, in the University of Arizona, Tucson. Another interesting presentation in the surge of recent publications on the subject, is the 1991 book by the physicist, Danah Zohar, THE QUANTUM SELF.
The Demand for the Observer’s
Inclusion in the Ultimate Theories.Right from the birth of the quantum mechanical investigation of the physical world it has brought with it a ghost, whose exorcism is proving difficult. Through the 20th century this ghost has repeatedly reappeared and has troubled many a physicist. The ghost is in the form of the demand for the Observer, the scientific investigator, Man him-self, to be included in the outcome of the experiment and even in the mathematical equations of quantum mechanics. The most famous of these contemplations is the thought experiment of Ervin Schrödinger of the cat in the box.
The trail of the ghost is to be found in remarkable remarks of many of the physicists. It may be said that Plank himself had this initiated in 1931, when he said: “Science can never solve the enigma of Nature, and this is because that in the final analyzes, we our selves are a part of the puzzle, which we are trying to solve.”* Right at the onset of the evolution of quantum mechanics, the British physicist, Sir James Jeans quipped: “The Universe begins to look more like a great thought than a machine.” The Swiss biologist Adolf Portmann commented on this: “It is known that the natural sciences have arrived at the borders of the physically knowable. They have had to acknowledge an infinite mystical domain behind all life.” The temperamental Nobel laureate, Wolfgang Pauli, did make much fuss about this question and went to see Carl Gustaf Jung in his search for an understanding of the connection between the Observer and the experiment. Later Pauli was quoted: “Behind reality there is an elevated and independent order which both the spirit of the observer, as well as the object of investigation, are subject to.” When David Bohm later spoke to Krishnamurti, he was not the first physicist of the New Physics, who turned to those who investigate the spirit of Man. Their discourse described in the 1985 book THE ENDING OF TIME, ended up dealing with the question: “What happened to humanity? Did we take a wrong turn somewhere on the way?” This same question had already been asked 18 years prior in one of the twentieth centuries most thought provoking writings; Arthur Koestler’s brilliant book THE GHOST IN THE MACHINE. In the preface to that book we find this remarkable statement: “They reflect the streak of insanity which runs through the history of our species, and which indicate that somewhere along the line of its ascent to prominence something has gone wrong... The search for the cause of that deficiency starts with the Book of Genesis and has continued ever since.” In that book Dr. Koestler makes us painfully aware of the truth regarding the fatal “poverty” of our pseudo sciences of psychology and psychiatry. The other side of the coin is the possibility that our clinging to the failed and erroneous theories and methods in this branch of the scientific effort may be keeping us from discovering the real truth of Man.
Without necessarily being aware that something crucial is missing in Man’s pathologically imperfect pseudo sciences of Man, many physicists were aware of the fact that in quantum mechanical observations, the Observer Connection was missing. Here the physicist Brandon Carter reminds us that: “According to the basic laws of physics, we have to include the characteristics of the instruments. Here, we the observer, must be counted amongst the instruments.” And the grand old man of physics, John A. Wheeler, has here commented: “Nothing is more important about quantum physics than this: it has destroyed the concept of the world as ‘sitting out there’. The universe will never afterwards be the same.” In spite of many attempts at including the Observer in the experimental analyzes, this has not met with success. There has not even been anything, which could be classified as close to some kind of success. Appropriately Professor Stephen Hawking remarks: “Although we know the basic equations which bring together all of our biology, we have not been able to bring together any investigation of human behavior into the branch of applied mathematics.”* The physicist and Nobel laureate, Eugene Wigner, has claimed that: “Man will never understand physical reality unless he takes into account the self-reflecting properties of his consciousness.”* Francis of Assisi had described these difficulties thus: “Who is it that does the knowing? – What we are seeking is that which is seeking.”*George Berkeley bishop is known for remarks of this nature. What is here the foundation for the declaration of the physicists, is the hope of finding the “program” for the wave function of the Universe. That would then represent the “program” for all wave functions, as well as the wave function of the human brain. This is so, since all wave functions are of the same quantum mechanical nature.
A consequence of all this is the suggestion that we cannot close this discussion without having the famous psychobiologist, Richard M. Restak, saying few words. At the opening of his 1979 book THE BRAIN, THE LAST FRONTIER he provides us with this information: “Two former Nobel Prize laureates in physics were recently asked to guess what area of research would win the Nobel Prize for physics in the year 2000. Both of them, without prior consultation and with hardly a hesitation, said brain research. The human brain, they concluded, is our ultimate intellectual challenge in the last quarter of the twentieth century.” Restak declares the search for the final understanding of consciousness and the functions of the human brain, to be “The final frontier of science.”*Although the author enjoys only limited agreement with the psychology of Sigmund Freud, it is none-the-less his projection, which will be the final word on the ultimate reality in the search for a solution for Man’s problems. “The voice of the intellect is a soft one, but it does not rest until it has gained a hearing. Ultimately, after endless rebuffs, it succeeds. This is one of the few points in which one may be optimistic about the future of mankind.” *–Well then, it is time we turn to...
The Overview of the References.
The next part of the THE LITTLE SCROLL is:
04 : Part One 2
Introduction to the Venn-set Theoretical
Approach to the Theory of Everything.
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